tag rule

Ionization Energies of the Elements from READE

{glossarbot=disable}Ionization Energies of the Elements

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

1 H hydrogen

use

1312.0

WEL

1312.0

CRC

13.59844

2 He helium

use

2372.3

5250.5

WEL

2372.3

5250.5

CRC

24.58741

54.41778

3 Li lithium

use

520.2

7298.1

11815.0

WEL

520.2

7298.1

11815.0

CRC

5.39172

75.64018

122.45429

4 Be beryllium

use

899.5

1757.1

14848.7

21006.6

WEL

899.5

1757.1

14848.7

21006.6

CRC

9.3227

18.21116

153.89661

217.71865

5 B boron

use

800.6

2427.1

3659.7

25025.8

32826.7

WEL

800.6

2427.1

3659.7

25025.8

32826.7

CRC

8.29803

25.15484

37.93064

259.37521

340.22580

6 C carbon

use

1086.5

2352.6

4620.5

6222.7

37831

47277.0

WEL

1086.5

2352.6

4620.5

6222.7

37831

47277.0

CRC

11.26030

24.38332

47.8878

64.4939

392.087

489.99334

7 N nitrogen

use

1402.3

2856

4578.1

7475.0

9444.9

53266.6

64360

WEL

1402.3

2856

4578.1

7475.0

9444.9

53266.6

64360

CRC

14.53414

29.6013

47.44924

77.4735

97.8902

552.0718

667.046

8 O oxygen

use

1313.9

3388.3

5300.5

7469.2

10989.5

13326.5

71330

84078.0

WEL

1313.9

3388.3

5300.5

7469.2

10989.5

13326.5

71330

84078.0

CRC

13.61806

35.11730

54.9355

77.41353

113.8990

138.1197

739.29

871.4101

9 F fluorine

use

1681.0

3374.2

6050.4

8407.7

11022.7

15164.1

17868

92038.1

106434.3

WEL

1681.0

3374.2

6050.4

8407.7

11022.7

15164.1

17868

92038.1

106434.3

CRC

17.42282

34.97082

62.7084

87.1398

114.2428

157.1651

185.186

953.9112

1103.1176

10 Ne neon

use

2080.7

3952.3

6122

9371

12177

15238

19999.0

23069.5

115379.5

131432

WEL

2080.7

3952.3

6122

9371

12177

15238

19999.0

23069.5

115379.5

131432

CRC

21.5646

40.96328

63.45

97.12

126.21

157.93

207.2759

239.0989

1195.8286

1362.1995

11 Na sodium

use

495.8

4562

6910.3

9543

13354

16613

20117

25496

28932

141362

159076

WEL

495.8

4562

6910.3

9543

13354

16613

20117

25496

28932

141362

CRC

5.13908

47.2864

71.6200

98.91

138.40

172.18

208.50

264.25

299.864

1465.121

1648.702

12 Mg magnesium

use

737.7

1450.7

7732.7

10542.5

13630

18020

21711

25661

31653

35458

169988

189368

WEL

737.7

1450.7

7732.7

10542.5

13630

18020

21711

25661

31653

35458

CRC

7.64624

15.03528

80.1437

109.2655

141.27

186.76

225.02

265.96

328.06

367.50

1761.805

1962.6650

13 Al aluminium

use

577.5

1816.7

2744.8

11577

14842

18379

23326

27465

31853

38473

42647

201266

222316

WEL

577.5

1816.7

2744.8

11577

14842

18379

23326

27465

31853

38473

CRC

5.98577

18.82856

28.44765

119.992

153.825

190.49

241.76

284.66

330.13

398.75

442.00

2085.98

2304.1410

14 Si silicon

use

786.5

1577.1

3231.6

4355.5

16091

19805

23780

29287

33878

38726

45962

50502

235196

257923

WEL

786.5

1577.1

3231.6

4355.5

16091

19805

23780

29287

33878

38726

CRC

8.15169

16.34585

33.49302

45.14181

166.767

205.27

246.5

303.54

351.12

401.37

476.36

523.42

2437.63

2673.182

15 P phosphorus

use

1011.8

1907

2914.1

4963.6

6273.9

21267

25431

29872

35905

40950

46261

54110

59024

271791

296195

WEL

1011.8

1907

2914.1

4963.6

6273.9

21267

25431

29872

35905

40950

CRC

10.48669

19.7694

30.2027

51.4439

65.0251

220.421

263.57

309.60

372.13

424.4

479.46

560.8

611.74

2816.91

3069.842

16 S sulfur

use

999.6

2252

3357

4556

7004.3

8495.8

27107

31719

36621

43177

48710

54460

62930

68216

311048

337138

WEL

999.6

2252

3357

4556

7004.3

8495.8

27107

31719

36621

43177

CRC

10.36001

23.3379

34.79

47.222

72.5945

88.0530

280.948

328.75

379.55

447.5

504.8

564.44

652.2

707.01

3223.78

3494.1892

17 Cl chlorine

use

1251.2

2298

3822

5158.6

6542

9362

11018

33604

38600

43961

51068

57119

63363

72341

78095

352994

380760

WEL

1251.2

2298

3822

5158.6

6542

9362

11018

33604

38600

43961

CRC

12.96764

23.814

39.61

53.4652

67.8

97.03

114.1958

348.28

400.06

455.63

529.28

591.99

656.71

749.76

809.40

3658.521

3946.2960

18 Ar argon

use

1520.6

2665.8

3931

5771

7238

8781

11995

13842

40760

46186

52002

59653

66199

72918

82473

88576

397605

427066

WEL

1520.6

2665.8

3931

5771

7238

8781

11995

13842

40760

46186

CRC

15.75962

27.62967

40.74

59.81

75.02

91.009

124.323

143.460

422.45

478.69

538.96

618.26

686.10

755.74

854.77

918.03

4120.8857

4426.2296

19 K potassium

use

418.8

3052

4420

5877

7975

9590

11343

14944

16963.7

48610

54490

60730

68950

75900

83080

93400

99710

444880

476063

WEL

418.8

3052

4420

5877

7975

9590

11343

14944

16963.7

48610

CRC

4.34066

31.63

45.806

60.91

82.66

99.4

117.56

154.88

175.8174

503.8

564.7

629.4

714.6

786.6

861.1

968

1033.4

4610.8

4934.046

20 Ca calcium

use

589.8

1145.4

4912.4

6491

8153

10496

12270

14206

18191

20385

57110

63410

70110

78890

86310

94000

104900

111711

494850

527762

WEL

589.8

1145.4

4912.4

6491

8153

10496

12270

14206

18191

20385

57110

CRC

6.11316

11.87172

50.9131

67.27

84.50

108.78

127.2

147.24

188.54

211.275

591.9

657.2

726.6

817.6

894.5

974

1087

1157.8

5128.8

5469.864

21 Sc scandium

use

633.1

1235.0

2388.6

7090.6

8843

10679

13310

15250

17370

21726

24102

66320

73010

80160

89490

97400

105600

117000

124270

547530

582163

WEL

633.1

1235.0

2388.6

7090.6

8843

10679

13310

15250

17370

21726

24102

66320

73010

80160

89490

97400

105600

117000

124270

547530

582163

CRC

6.5615

12.79967

24.75666

73.4894

91.65

110.68

138.0

158.1

180.03

225.18

249.798

687.36

756.7

830.8

927.5

1009

1094

1213

1287.97

5674.8

6033.712

22 Ti titanium

use

658.8

1309.8

2652.5

4174.6

9581

11533

13590

16440

18530

20833

25575

28125

76015

83280

90880

100700

109100

117800

129900

137530

602930

639294

WEL

658.8

1309.8

2652.5

4174.6

9581

11533

13590

16440

18530

20833

25575

28125

76015

83280

90880

100700

109100

117800

129900

137530

602930

CRC

6.8281

13.5755

27.4917

43.2672

99.30

119.53

140.8

170.4

192.1

215.92

265.07

291.500

787.84

863.1

941.9

1044

1131

1221

1346

1425.4

6249.0

6625.82

23 V vanadium

use

650.9

1414

2830

4507

6298.7

12363

14530

16730

19860

22240

24670

29730

32446

86450

94170

102300

112700

121600

130700

143400

151440

661050

699144

WEL

650.9

1414

2830

4507

6298.7

12363

14530

16730

19860

22240

24670

29730

32446

86450

94170

102300

112700

121600

130700

143400

151440

CRC

6.7462

14.66

29.311

46.709

65.2817

128.13

150.6

173.4

205.8

230.5

255.7

308.1

336.277

896.0

976

1060

1168

1260

1355

1486

1569.6

6851.3

7246.12

24 Cr chromium

use

652.9

1590.6

2987

4743

6702

8744.9

15455

17820

20190

23580

26130

28750

34230

37066

97510

105800

114300

125300

134700

144300

157700

166090

721870

761733

WEL

652.9

1590.6

2987

4743

6702

8744.9

15455

17820

20190

23580

26130

28750

34230

37066

97510

105800

114300

125300

134700

144300

157700

CRC

6.7665

16.4857

30.96

49.16

69.46

90.6349

160.18

184.7

209.3

244.4

270.8

298.0

354.8

384.168

1010.6

1097

1185

1299

1396

1496

1634

1721.4

7481.7

7894.81

25 Mn manganese

use

717.3

1509.0

3248

4940

6990

9220

11500

18770

21400

23960

27590

30330

33150

38880

41987

109480

118100

127100

138600

148500

158600

172500

181380

785450

827067

WEL

717.3

1509.0

3248

4940

6990

9220

11500

18770

21400

23960

27590

30330

33150

38880

41987

109480

118100

127100

138600

148500

158600

CRC

7.43402

15.63999

33.668

51.2

72.4

95.6

119.203

194.5

221.8

248.3

286.0

314.4

343.6

403.0

435.163

1134.7

1224

1317

1437

1539

1644

1788

1879.9

8140.6

8571.94

26 Fe iron

use

762.5

1561.9

2957

5290

7240

9560

12060

14580

22540

25290

28000

31920

34830

37840

44100

47206

122200

131000

140500

152600

163000

173600

188100

195200

851800

895161

WEL

762.5

1561.9

2957

5290

7240

9560

12060

14580

22540

25290

28000

31920

34830

37840

44100

47206

122200

131000

140500

152600

163000

CRC

7.9024

16.1878

30.652

54.8

75.0

99.1

124.98

151.06

233.6

262.1

290.2

330.8

361.0

392.2

457

489.256

1266

1358

1456

1582

1689

1799

1950

2023

8828

9277.69

27 Co cobalt

use

760.4

1648

3232

4950

7670

9840

12440

15230

17959

26570

29400

32400

36600

39700

42800

49396

52737

134810

145170

154700

167400

178100

189300

204500

214100

920870

966023

WEL

760.4

1648

3232

4950

7670

9840

12440

15230

17959

26570

29400

32400

36600

39700

42800

49396

52737

134810

145170

154700

167400

CRC

7.8810

17.083

33.50

51.3

79.5

102.0

128.9

157.8

186.13

275.4

305

336

379

411

444

511.96

546.58

1397.2

1504.6

1603

1735

1846

1962

2119

2219.0

9544.1

10012.12

28 Ni nickel

use

737.1

1753.0

3395

5300

7339

10400

12800

15600

18600

21670

30970

34000

37100

41500

44800

48100

55101

58570

148700

159000

169400

182700

194000

205600

221400

231490

992718

1039668

WEL

737.1

1753.0

3395

5300

7339

10400

12800

15600

18600

21670

30970

34000

37100

41500

44800

48100

55101

58570

148700

159000

169400

CRC

7.6398

18.16884

35.19

54.9

76.06

108

133

162

193

224.6

321.0

352

384

430

464

499

571.08

607.06

1541

1648

1756

1894

2011

2131

2295

2399.2

10288.8

10775.40

29 Cu copper

use

745.5

1957.9

3555

5536

7700

9900

13400

16000

19200

22400

25600

35600

38700

42000

46700

50200

53700

61100

64702

163700

174100

184900

198800

210500

222700

239100

249660

1067358

1116105

WEL

745.5

1957.9

3555

5536

7700

9900

13400

16000

19200

22400

25600

35600

38700

42000

46700

50200

53700

61100

64702

163700

174100

CRC

7.72638

20.29240

36.841

57.38

79.8

103

139

166

199

232

265.3

369

401

435

484

520

557

633

670.588

1697

1804

1916

2060

2182

2308

2478

2587.5

11062.38

11567.617

30 Zn zinc

use

906.4

1733.3

3833

5731

7970

10400

12900

16800

19600

23000

26400

29990

40490

43800

47300

52300

55900

59700

67300

71200

179100

WEL

906.4

1733.3

3833

5731

7970

10400

12900

16800

19600

23000

26400

29990

40490

43800

47300

52300

55900

59700

67300

71200

179100

CRC

9.3942

17.96440

39.723

59.4

82.6

108

134

174

203

238

274

310.8

419.7

454

490

542

579

619

698

738

1856

31 Ga gallium

use

578.8

1979.3

2963

6180

WEL

578.8

1979.3

2963

6180

CRC

5.99930

20.5142

30.71

64

32 Ge germanium

use

762

1537.5

3302.1

4411

9020

WEL

762

1537.5

3302.1

4411

9020

CRC

7.8994

15.93462

34.2241

45.7131

93.5

33 As arsenic

use

947.0

1798

2735

4837

6043

12310

WEL

947.0

1798

2735

4837

6043

12310

CRC

9.7886

18.633

28.351

50.13

62.63

127.6

34 Se selenium

use

941.0

2045

2973.7

4144

6590

7880

14990

WEL

941.0

2045

2973.7

4144

6590

7880

14990

CRC

9.75238

21.19

30.8204

42.9450

68.3

81.7

155.4

35 Br bromine

use

1139.9

2103

3470

4560

5760

8550

9940

18600

WEL

1139.9

2103

3470

4560

5760

8550

9940

18600

CRC

11.81381

21.8

36

47.3

59.7

88.6

103.0

192.8

36 Kr krypton

use

1350.8

2350.4

3565

5070

6240

7570

10710

12138

22274

25880

29700

33800

37700

43100

47500

52200

57100

61800

75800

80400

85300

90400

96300

101400

111100

116290

282500

296200

311400

326200

WEL

1350.8

2350.4

3565

5070

6240

7570

10710

12138

22274

25880

29700

33800

37700

43100

47500

52200

57100

61800

75800

80400

85300

CRC

13.99961

24.35985

36.950

52.5

64.7

78.5

111.0

125.802

230.85

268.2

308

350

391

447

492

541

592

641

786

833

884

937

998

1051

1151

1205.3

2928

3070

3227

3381

37 Rb rubidium

use

403.0

2633

3860

5080

6850

8140

9570

13120

14500

26740

WEL

403.0

2633

3860

5080

6850

8140

9570

13120

14500

26740

CRC

4.17713

27.285

40

52.6

71.0

84.4

99.2

136

150

277.1

38 Sr strontium

use

549.5

1064.2

4138

5500

6910

8760

10230

11800

15600

17100

31270

WEL

549.5

1064.2

4138

5500

6910

8760

10230

11800

15600

17100

CRC

5.6949

11.03013

42.89

57

71.6

90.8

106

122.3

162

177

324.1

39 Y yttrium

use

600

1180

1980

5847

7430

8970

11190

12450

14110

18400

19900

36090

WEL

600

1180

1980

5847

7430

8970

11190

12450

14110

18400

CRC

6.2171

12.24

20.52

60.597

77.0

93.0

116

129

146.2

191

206

374.0

40 Zr zirconium

use

640.1

1270

2218

3313

7752

9500

WEL

640.1

1270

2218

3313

7752

9500

CRC

6.63390

13.13

22.99

34.34

80.348

41 Nb niobium

use

652.1

1380

2416

3700

4877

9847

12100

WEL

652.1

1380

2416

3700

4877

9847

12100

CRC

6.75885

14.32

25.04

38.3

50.55

102.057

125

42 Mo molybdenum

use

684.3

1560

2618

4480

5257

6640.8

12125

13860

15835

17980

20190

22219

26930

29196

52490

55000

61400

67700

74000

80400

87000

93400

98420

104400

121900

127700

133800

139800

148100

154500

WEL

684.3

1560

2618

4480

5257

6640.8

12125

13860

15835

17980

20190

22219

26930

29196

52490

55000

61400

67700

74000

80400

87000

CRC

7.09243

16.16

27.13

46.4

54.49

68.8276

125.664

143.6

164.12

186.4

209.3

230.28

279.1

302.60

544.0

570

636

702

767

833

902

968

1020

1082

1263

1323

1387

1449

1535

1601

43 Tc technetium

use

702

1470

2850

WEL

702

1470

2850

CRC

7.28

15.26

29.54

44 Ru ruthenium

use

710.2

1620

2747

WEL

710.2

1620

2747

CRC

7.36050

16.76

28.47

45 Rh rhodium

use

719.7

1740

2997

WEL

719.7

1740

2997

CRC

7.45890

18.08

31.06

46 Pd palladium

use

804.4

1870

3177

WEL

804.4

1870

3177

CRC

8.3369

19.43

32.93

47 Ag silver

use

731.0

2070

3361

WEL

731.0

2070

3361

CRC

7.5762

21.49

34.83

48 Cd cadmium

use

867.8

1631.4

3616

WEL

867.8

1631.4

3616

CRC

8.9938

16.90832

37.48

49 In indium

use

558.3

1820.7

2704

5210

WEL

558.3

1820.7

2704

5210

CRC

5.78636

18.8698

28.03

54

50 Sn tin

use

708.6

1411.8

2943.0

3930.3

7456

WEL

708.6

1411.8

2943.0

3930.3

7456

CRC

7.3439

14.63225

30.50260

40.73502

72.28

51 Sb antimony

use

834

1594.9

2440

4260

5400

10400

WEL

834

1594.9

2440

4260

5400

10400

CRC

8.6084

16.53051

25.3

44.2

56

108

52 Te tellurium

use

869.3

1790

2698

3610

5668

6820

13200

WEL

869.3

1790

2698

3610

5668

6820

13200

CRC

9.0096

18.6

27.96

37.41

58.75

70.7

137

53 I iodine

use

1008.4

1845.9

3180

WEL

1008.4

1845.9

3180

CRC

10.45126

19.1313

33

54 Xe xenon

use

1170.4

2046.4

3099.4

WEL

1170.4

2046.4

3099.4

CRC

12.1298

21.20979

32.1230

55 Cs caesium

use

375.7

2234.3

3400

WEL

375.7

2234.3

3400

CRC

3.89390

23.15745

56 Ba barium

use

502.9

965.2

3600

WEL

502.9

965.2

3600

CRC

5.21170

10.00390

57 La lanthanum

use

538.1

1067

1850.3

4819

5940

WEL

538.1

1067

1850.3

4819

5940

CRC

5.5769

11.060

19.1773

49.95

61.6

58 Ce cerium

use

534.4

1050

1949

3547

6325

7490

WEL

534.4

1050

1949

3547

6325

7490

CRC

5.5387

10.85

20.198

36.758

65.55

77.6

59 Pr praseodymium

use

527

1020

2086

3761

5551

WEL

527

1020

2086

3761

5551

CRC

5.473

10.55

21.624

38.98

57.53

60 Nd neodymium

use

533.1

1040

2130

3900

WEL

533.1

1040

2130

3900

CRC

5.5250

10.73

22.1

40.41

61 Pm promethium

use

540

1050

2150

3970

WEL

540

1050

2150

3970

CRC

5.582

10.90

22.3

41.1

62 Sm samarium

use

544.5

1070

2260

3990

WEL

544.5

1070

2260

3990

CRC

5.6436

11.07

23.4

41.4

63 Eu europium

use

547.1

1085

2404

4120

WEL

547.1

1085

2404

4120

CRC

5.6704

11.241

24.92

42.7

64 Gd gadolinium

use

593.4

1170

1990

4250

WEL

593.4

1170

1990

4250

CRC

6.1501

12.09

20.63

44.0

65 Tb terbium

use

565.8

1110

2114

3839

WEL

565.8

1110

2114

3839

CRC

5.8638

11.52

21.91

39.79

66 Dy dysprosium

use

573.0

1130

2200

3990

WEL

573.0

1130

2200

3990

CRC

5.9389

11.67

22.8

41.47

67 Ho holmium

use

581.0

1140

2204

4100

WEL

581.0

1140

2204

4100

CRC

6.0215

11.80

22.84

42.5

68 Er erbium

use

589.3

1150

2194

4120

WEL

589.3

1150

2194

4120

CRC

6.1077

11.93

22.74

42.7

69 Tm thulium

use

596.7

1160

2285

4120

WEL

596.7

1160

2285

4120

CRC

6.18431

12.05

23.68

42.7

70 Yb ytterbium

use

603.4

1174.8

2417

4203

WEL

603.4

1174.8

2417

4203

CRC

6.25416

12.1761

25.05

43.56

71 Lu lutetium

use

523.5

1340

2022.3

4370

6445

WEL

523.5

1340

2022.3

4370

6445

CRC

5.4259

13.9

20.9594

45.25

66.8

72 Hf hafnium

use

658.5

1440

2250

3216

WEL

658.5

1440

2250

3216

CRC

6.82507

14.9

23.3

33.33

73 Ta tantalum

use

761

1500

WEL

761

1500

CRC

7.5496

74 W tungsten

use

770

1700

WEL

770

1700

CRC

7.8640

75 Re rhenium

use

760

1260

2510

3640

WEL

760

1260

2510

3640

CRC

7.8335

76 Os osmium

use

840

1600

WEL

840

1600

CRC

8.4382

77 Ir iridium

use

880

1600

WEL

880

1600

CRC

8.9670

78 Pt platinum

use

870

1791

WEL

870

1791

CRC

8.9587

18.563

79 Au gold

use

890.1

1980

WEL

890.1

1980

CRC

9.2255

20.5

80 Hg mercury

use

1007.1

1810

3300

WEL

1007.1

1810

3300

CRC

10.43750

18.756

34.2

81 Tl thallium

use

589.4

1971

2878

WEL

589.4

1971

2878

CRC

6.1082

20.428

29.83

82 Pb lead

use

715.6

1450.5

3081.5

4083

6640

WEL

715.6

1450.5

3081.5

4083

6640

CRC

7.41666

15.0322

31.9373

42.32

68.8

83 Bi bismuth

use

703

1610

2466

4370

5400

8520

WEL

703

1610

2466

4370

5400

8520

CRC

7.2856

16.69

25.56

45.3

56.0

88.3

84 Po polonium

use

812.1

WEL

812.1

CRC

8.417

85 At astatine

use

est. 920

WEL

920

CRC

talk

Doesn't seem to have yet been experimentally measured. Gmelin handbook gives a number of references for predictions of the 1st ionization energy, around 9.4 eV. (907 kJ/mol)

86 Rn radon

use

1037

WEL

1037

CRC

10.74850

87 Fr francium

use

380

WEL

380

CRC

4.0727

88 Ra radium

use

509.3

979.0

WEL

509.3

979.0

CRC

5.2784

10.14716

89 Ac actinium

use

499

1170

WEL

499

1170

CRC

5.17

12.1

90 Th thorium

use

587

1110

1930

2780

WEL

587

1110

1930

2780

CRC

6.3067

11.5

20.0

28.8

91 Pa protactinium

use

568

WEL

568

CRC

5.89

92 U uranium

use

597.6

1420

WEL

597.6

1420

CRC

6.19405

93 Np neptunium

use

604.5

WEL

604.5

CRC

6.2657

94 Pu plutonium

use

584.7

WEL

584.7

CRC

6.0262

95 Am americium

use

578

WEL

578

CRC

5.9738

96 Cm curium

use

581

WEL

581

CRC

5.9915

97 Bk berkelium

use

601

WEL

601

CRC

6.1979

98 Cf californium

use

608

WEL

608

CRC

6.2817

99 Es einsteinium

use

619

WEL

619

CRC

6.42

100 Fm fermium

use

627

WEL

627

CRC

6.50

101 Md mendelevium

use

635

WEL

635

CRC

6.58

102 No nobelium

use

642

WEL

CRC

6.65

103 Lr lawrencium

use

470

WEL

CRC

4.9

104 Rf rutherfordium

use

580

WEL

CRC

6.0

Notes:

  • Values from CRC are given in eV, other values are in kJ/mol. To convert from eV to kJ/mol multiply by 96.48534.

References:

a) WEL-

As quoted at http://www.webelements.com/ from these sources:

  • J.E. Huheey, E.A. Keiter, and R.L. Keiter in Inorganic Chemistry : Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th edition, HarperCollins, New York, USA, 1993.

  • A.M. James and M.P. Lord in Macmillan's Chemical and Physical Data, Macmillan, London, UK, 1992.

b) CRC-

As quoted from various sources in an online version of:

  • David R. Lide (ed), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, 2003; Section 10, Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics; Ionization Potentials of Atoms and Atomic Ions

External links:

Further sources may be:

  • NIST Atomic Spectra Database, Version 3.0. http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/ASD/index.html

  • J.E. Sansonetti, W.C. Martin, and S.L. Young (2004), Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data (version 1.1). [Online] Available: http://physics.nist.gov/Handbook [2005, March 25]. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.