tag rule

Electrical Resistivities of the Elements from READE

{glossarbot=disable}Electrical resistivity

T 80 K (-193 °C) 273 K (0 °C) 293 K (20 °C) 298 K (25 °C) 300 K (27 °C) 500 K (227 °C)
3 Li lithium
use 10.0 nΩm 85.3 nΩm 92.8 nΩm 94.7 nΩm 95.5 nΩm  
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 1.00 8.53 9.28 9.47 9.55  
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     9.28      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 9.4
4 Be beryllium
use 0.75 nΩm 30.2 nΩm 35.6 nΩm 37.0 nΩm 37.6 nΩm 99 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 0.075 3.02 3.56 3.70 3.76 9.9
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     3.56      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 4
5 B boron
use     1.5×104 Ωm      
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     1.5×1012      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) > 1012
6 C carbon (diamond)
use  
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     0.8 [sic]      
6 C carbon (graphite)
use  
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     1375      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) about 1000 - direction dependent
11 Na sodium
use 8.0 nΩm 43.3 nΩm 47.7 nΩm 48.8 nΩm 49.3 nΩm  
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 0.80 4.33 4.77 4.88 4.93  
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     4.77      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 4.7
12 Mg magnesium
use 5.57 nΩm 40.5 nΩm 43.9 nΩm 44.8 nΩm 45.1 nΩm 78.6 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 0.557 4.05 4.39 4.48 4.51 7.86
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     4.39      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 4.4
13 Al aluminium
use 2.45 nΩm 24.17 nΩm 26.50 nΩm 27.09 nΩm 27.33 nΩm 49.9 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 0.245 2.417 2.650 2.709 2.733 4.99
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     2.6548      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 2.65
14 Si silicon
use  
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     105      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) about 100000
15 P phosphorus
use  
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     (white) 10 [sic]      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 10
16 S sulfur
use     (amorphous) 2×1015 Ωm      
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     (amorphous) 2×1023      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) > 1023
17 Cl chlorine
use     > 10 Ωm      
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     >109      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) > 1010
19 K potassium
use 13.4 nΩm 64.9 nΩm 72.0 nΩm 73.9 nΩm 74.7 nΩm  
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 1.34 6.49 7.20 7.39 7.47  
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     7.2      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 7
20 Ca calcium
use 6.5 nΩm 31.1 nΩm 33.6 nΩm 34.2 nΩm 34.5 nΩm 60. nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 0.65 3.11 3.36 3.42 3.45 6.0
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     3.36      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 3.4
21 Sc scandium
use (room temperature) (alpha, polycrystalline) calculated 562 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) (290 K–300 K) 56.2
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, amorphous) 70.9
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, crystalline) 26.9
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, polycrystalline) calculated from single crystal values 56.2
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     56.2      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 55
22 Ti titanium
use   0.39 µΩm 0.420 µΩm      
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   39        
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     42.0      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 40
23 V vanadium
use 24.1 nΩm 181 nΩm 197 nΩm 201 nΩm 202 nΩm 348 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 2.41 18.1 19.7 20.1 20.2 34.8
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     19.7      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 20
24 Cr chromium
use   118 nΩm 125 nΩm 126 nΩm 127 nΩm 201 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   11.8 12.5 12.6 12.7 20.1
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     12.5      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 12.7
25 Mn manganese
use 1.32 µΩm 1.43 µΩm 1.44 µΩm 1.44 µΩm 1.44 µΩm 1.49 µΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 132 143 144 144 144 149
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     144      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 160
26 Fe iron
use 6.93 nΩm 85.7 nΩm 96.1 nΩm 98.7 nΩm 99.8 nΩm 237 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 0.693 8.57 9.61 9.87 9.98 23.7
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     9.61      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 9.7
27 Co cobalt
use   56 nΩm 62.4 nΩm      
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   5.6        
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     6.24      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 6
28 Ni nickel
use 5.45 nΩm 61.6 nΩm 69.3 nΩm 71.2 nΩm 72.0 nΩm 177 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 0.545 6.16 6.93 7.12 7.20 17.7
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     6.93      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 7
29 Cu copper
use 2.15 nΩm 15.43 nΩm 16.78 nΩm 17.12 nΩm 17.25 nΩm 30.90 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 0.215 1.543 1.678 1.712 1.725 3.090
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     1.678      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 1.7
30 Zn zinc
use 11.5 nΩm 54.6 nΩm 59.0 nΩm 60.1 nΩm 60.6 nΩm 108.2 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 1.15 5.46 5.90 6.01 6.06 10.82
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     5.9      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 5.9
31 Ga gallium
use  
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   13.6        
LNG (10-8 Ωm) (30 °C) 25.795
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 14
32 Ge germanium
use
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     53000      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) about 50000
33 As arsenic
use     333 nΩm      
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     33.3      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 30
34 Se selenium
use  
LNG (10-8 Ωm)   (amorphous) 1.2 [sic]        
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) high
35 Br bromine
use     7.8×1010 Ωm      
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     7.8×1018      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) > 1018
37 Rb rubidium
use 26.5 nΩm 115 nΩm 128 nΩm 131 nΩm 133 nΩm  
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 2.65 11.5 12.8 13.1 13.3  
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     12.8      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 12
38 Sr strontium
use 36.4 nΩm 123 nΩm 132 nΩm 134 nΩm 135 nΩm 222 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 3.64 12.3 13.2 13.4 13.5 22.2
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     13.2      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 13
39 Y yttrium
use (room temperature) (alpha, polycrystalline) 596 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) (290 K–300 K) 59.6
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, amorphous) 72.5
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, crystalline) 35.5
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, polycrystalline) 59.6
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     59.6      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 56
40 Zr zirconium
use 66.4 nΩm 388 nΩm 421 nΩm 429 nΩm 433 nΩm 765 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 6.64 38.8 42.1 42.9 43.3 76.5
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     42.1      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 42
41 Nb niobium
use   152 nΩm        
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   15.2        
LNG (10-8 Ωm)   15.2        
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 15
42 Mo molybdenum
use 4.82 nΩm 48.5 nΩm 53.4 nΩm 54.7 nΩm 55.2 nΩm 106 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 0.482 4.85 5.34 5.47 5.52 10.6
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     5.34      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 5
43 Tc technetium
use  
LNG (10-8 Ωm) (100 °C) 22.6
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 20
44 Ru ruthenium
use   71 nΩm        
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   7.1        
LNG (10-8 Ωm)   7.1        
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 7.1
45 Rh rhodium
use   43.3 nΩm        
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   4.3        
LNG (10-8 Ωm)   4.33        
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 4.3
46 Pd palladium
use 17.5 nΩm 97.8 nΩm 105.4 nΩm 107.3 nΩm 108.0 nΩm 179.4 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 1.75 9.78 10.54 10.73 10.80 17.94
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     10.54      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 10
47 Ag silver
use 2.89 nΩm 14.67 nΩm 15.87 nΩm 16.17 nΩm 16.29 nΩm 28.7 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 0.289 1.467 1.587 1.617 1.629 2.87
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     1.587      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 1.6
48 Cd cadmium
use   68 nΩm        
use (22 °C) 72.7 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   6.8        
LNG (10-8 Ωm) (22 °C) 7.27
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 7
49 In indium
use   0.080 µΩm 83.7 nΩm      
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   8.0        
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     8.37      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 8
50 Sn tin
use   115 nΩm        
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   11.5        
LNG (10-8 Ωm)   11.5        
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 11
51 Sb antimony
use   0.39 µΩm 417 nΩm      
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   39        
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     41.7      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 40
52 Te tellurium
use  
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     (5.8–33)×10³      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) about 10000
53 I iodine
use   1.3×107 Ωm        
LNG (10-8 Ωm)   1.3×1015        
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) > 1015
55 Cs caesium
use 41.6 nΩm 187 nΩm 205 nΩm 208 nΩm 210 nΩm  
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 4.16 18.7 20.5 20.8 21.0  
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     20.5      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 20
56 Ba barium
use 68.3 nΩm 302 nΩm 332 nΩm 0.340 µΩm 343 nΩm 724 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 6.83 30.2 33.2 34.0 34.3 72.4
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     33.2      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 35
57 La lanthanum
use (room temperature) (alpha, polycrystalline) 615 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) (290 K–300 K) 61.5
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, polycrystalline) 61.5
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     61.5      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 61
58 Ce cerium (beta, hex)
use (room temperature) (beta, polycrystalline) 828 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) (beta, hex) (290 K–300 K) 82.8
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (beta, polycrystalline) 82.8
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     (beta, hex) 82.8      
58 Ce cerium (gamma, cubic)
use (room temperature) (gamma, polycrystalline) 744 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm)       74.4    
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (gamma, polycrystalline) 74.4
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 74
59 Pr praseodymium
use (room temperature) (alpha, polycrystalline) 0.700 µΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) (290 K–300 K) 70.0
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, polycrystalline) 70.0
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     70.0      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 70
60 Nd neodymium
use (room temperature) (alpha, polycrystalline) 643 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) (290 K–300 K) 64.3
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, polycrystalline) 64.3
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     64.3      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 64
61 Pm promethium
use (room temperature) estimated 0.75 µΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) (290 K–300 K) 75 est.
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, polycrystalline) 75 estimated
LNG (10-8 Ωm)       64.0    
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 75
62 Sm samarium
use (room temperature) (alpha, polycrystalline) 0.940 µΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) (290 K–300 K) 94.0
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, polycrystalline) 94.0
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     94.0      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 94
63 Eu europium
use (room temperature) (polycrystalline) 0.900 µΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) (290 K–300 K) 90.0
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (polycrystalline) 90.0
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     90.0      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 90
64 Gd gadolinium
use (room temperature) (alpha, polycrystalline) 1.310 µΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) (290 K–300 K) 131
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, amorphous) 135.1
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, crystalline) 121.7
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, polycrystalline) 131.0
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     131      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 130
65 Tb terbium
use (room temperature) (alpha, polycrystalline) 1.150 µΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) (290 K–300 K) 115
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, amorphous) 123.5
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, crystalline) 101.5
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, polycrystalline) 115.0
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     115      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 120
66 Dy dysprosium
use (room temperature) (alpha, polycrystalline) 926 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) (290 K–300 K) 92.6
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, amorphous) 111.0
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, crystalline) 76.6
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (alpha, polycrystalline) 92.6
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     92.6      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 91
67 Ho holmium
use (room temperature) (polycrystalline) 814 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) (290 K–300 K) 81.4
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (amorphous) 101.5
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (crystalline) 60.5
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (polycrystalline) 81.4
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     81.4      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 94
68 Er erbium
use (room temperature) (polycrystalline) 0.860 µΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) (290 K–300 K) 86.0
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (amorphous) 94.5
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (crystalline) 60.3
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (polycrystalline) 86.0
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     86.0      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 86
69 Tm thulium
use (room temperature) (polycrystalline) 676 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) (290 K–300 K) 67.6
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (amorphous) 88.0
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (crystalline) 47.2
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (polycrystalline) 67.6
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     67.6      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 70
70 Yb ytterbium
use (room temperature) (beta, polycrystalline) 0.250 µΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) (290 K–300 K) 25.0
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (beta, polycrystalline) 25.0
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     25      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 28
71 Lu lutetium
use (room temperature) (polycrystalline) 582 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) (290 K–300 K) 58.2
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (amorphous) 76.6
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (crystalline) 34.7
CR2 (10-8 Ωm) (room temperature) (polycrystalline) 58.2
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     58.2      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 56
72 Hf hafnium
use 67.5 nΩm 304 nΩm 331 nΩm 337 nΩm 0.340 µΩm 631 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 6.75 30.4 33.1 33.7 34.0 63.1
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     33.1      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 30
73 Ta tantalum
use 26.2 nΩm 122 nΩm 131 nΩm 134 nΩm 135 nΩm 229 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 2.62 12.2 13.1 13.4 13.5 22.9
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     13.5      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 13
74 W tungsten
use 6.06 nΩm 48.2 nΩm 52.8 nΩm 53.9 nΩm 54.4 nΩm 103 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 0.606 4.82 5.28 5.39 5.44 10.3
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     5.28      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 5
75 Re rhenium
use   172 nΩm 193 nΩm      
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   17.2        
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     19.3      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 18
76 Os osmium
use   81.2 nΩm        
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   8.1        
LNG (10-8 Ωm)   8.12        
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 8.1
77 Ir iridium
use   47 nΩm 47.1 nΩm      
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   4.7        
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     4.71      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 4.7
78 Pt platinum
use 19.22 nΩm 96 nΩm 105 nΩm 107 nΩm 108 nΩm 183 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 1.922 9.6 10.5 10.7 10.8 18.3
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     10.6      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 10.6
79 Au gold
use 4.81 nΩm 20.51 nΩm 22.14 nΩm 22.55 nΩm 22.71 nΩm 39.7 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 0.481 2.051 2.214 2.255 2.271 3.97
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     2.214      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 2.2
80 Hg mercury
use       961 nΩm    
CRC (10-8 Ωm)       96.1    
LNG (10-8 Ωm) (solid) 21
LNG (10-8 Ωm) (liquid) 95.8
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 96
81 Tl thallium
use   0.15 µΩm 0.18 µΩm      
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   15        
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     18      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 15
82 Pb lead
use 49 nΩm 192 nΩm 208 nΩm 211 nΩm 213 nΩm 383 nΩm
CRC (10-8 Ωm) 4.9 19.2 20.8 21.1 21.3 38.3
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     20.8      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 21
83 Bi bismuth
use   1.07 µΩm 1.29 µΩm      
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   107        
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     129      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 130
84 Po polonium
use   (alpha) 0.40 µΩm        
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   40        
LNG (10-8 Ωm)   (alpha) 40.0        
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 43
88 Ra radium
use     1 µΩm      
LNG (10-8 Ωm)     100      
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 100
90 Th thorium
use   147 nΩm        
use (22 °C) 15.4
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   14.7        
LNG (10-8 Ωm) (22 °C) 15.4
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 15
91 Pa protactinium
use   177 nΩm        
use (22 °C) 19.1
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   17.7        
LNG (10-8 Ωm) (22 °C) 19.1
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 18
92 U uranium
use   0.280 µΩm        
CRC (10-8 Ωm)   28        
LNG (10-8 Ωm)   28.0        
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 28
93 Np neptunium
use (22 °C) 1.220 µΩm
LNG (10-8 Ωm) (22 °C) 122.0
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 120
94 Pu plutonium
use   1.460 µΩm        
LNG (10-8 Ωm)   146.0        
WEL (10-8 Ωm) (293 K–298 K) 150
T 80 K (-193 °C) 273 K (0 °C) 293 K (20 °C) 298 K (25 °C) 300 K (27 °C) 500 K (227 °C)

References:

a) WEL-

As quoted at http://www.webelements.com/ from these sources:

  • G.W.C. Kaye and T.H. Laby in Tables of physical and chemical constants, Longman, London, UK, 15th edition, 1993.
  • A.M. James and M.P. Lord in Macmillan's Chemical and Physical Data, Macmillan, London, UK, 1992.
  • D.R. Lide, (ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 79th edition, 1998.
  • J.A. Dean (ed) in Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, 14th edition, 1992.

b) CRC-

As quoted from various sources in an online version of:

  • David R. Lide (ed), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, 2003; Section 12, Properties of Solids; Electrical Resistivity of Pure Metals

c) CR2-

As quoted in an online version of:

  • David R. Lide (ed), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, 2003; Section 4, Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds; Physical Properties of the Rare Earth Metals

which further refers to:

  • Beaudry, B. J. and Gschneidner, K.A., Jr., in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Vol. 1, Gschneidner, K.A., Jr. and Eyring, L., Eds., North-Holland Physics, Amsterdam, 1978, 173.
  • McEwen, K.A., in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Vol. 1, Gschneidner, K.A., Jr. and Eyring, L., Eds., North-Holland Physics, Amsterdam, 1978, 411.

d) LNG-

As quoted from:

  • J.A. Dean (ed), Lange's Handbook of Chemistry (15th Edition), McGraw-Hill, 1999; Section 4, Table 4.1 Electronic Configuration and Properties of the Elements