tag rule

Elastic properties of the elements

Young's modulus

E/(GPa)

number

symbol

name

use

WEL

CRC

3

Li

lithium

4.9

4.9

 

4

Be

beryllium

287

287

 

11

Na

sodium

10

10

 

12

Mg

magnesium

45

45

 

13

Al

aluminium

70

70

 

14

Si

silicon

47

47

 

20

Ca

calcium

20

20

 

21

Sc

scandium

74.4

74

74.4

22

Ti

titanium

116

116

 

23

V

vanadium

128

128

 

24

Cr

chromium

279

279

 

25

Mn

manganese

198

198

 

26

Fe

iron

211

211

 

27

Co

cobalt

209

209

 

28

Ni

nickel

200

200

 

29

Cu

copper

130

130

 

30

Zn

zinc

108

108

 

33

As

arsenic

8

8

 

34

Se

selenium

10

10

 

37

Rb

rubidium

2.4

2.4

 

39

Y

yttrium

63.5

64

63.5

40

Zr

zirconium

68

68

 

41

Nb

niobium

105

105

 

42

Mo

molybdenum

329

329

 

44

Ru

ruthenium

447

447

 

45

Rh

rhodium

275

275

 

46

Pd

palladium

121

121

 

47

Ag

silver

83

83

 

48

Cd

cadmium

50

50

 

49

In

indium

11

11

 

50

Sn

tin

50

50

 

51

Sb

antimony

55

55

 

52

Te

tellurium

43

43

 

55

Cs

caesium

1.7

1.7

 

56

Ba

barium

13

13

 

57

La

lanthanum

(α form) 36.6

37

(α form) 36.6

58

Ce

cerium

(γ form) 33.6

34

(γ form) 33.6

59

Pr

praseodymium

(α form) 37.3

37

(α form) 37.3

60

Nd

neodymium

(α form) 41.4

41

(α form) 41.4

61

Pm

promethium

(α form) est. 46

46

(α form) est. 46

62

Sm

samarium

(α form) 49.7

50

(α form) 49.7

63

Eu

europium

18.2

18

18.2

64

Gd

gadolinium

(α form) 54.8

55

(α form) 54.8

65

Tb

terbium

(α form) 55.7

56

(α form) 55.7

66

Dy

dysprosium

(α form) 61.4

61

(α form) 61.4

67

Ho

holmium

64.8

65

64.8

68

Er

erbium

69.9

70

69.9

69

Tm

thulium

74.0

74

74.0

70

Yb

ytterbium

(β form) 23.9

24

(β form) 23.9

71

Lu

lutetium

68.6

69

68.6

72

Hf

hafnium

78

78

 

73

Ta

tantalum

186

186

 

74

W

tungsten

411

411

 

75

Re

rhenium

463

463

 

77

Ir

iridium

528

528

 

78

Pt

platinum

168

168

 

79

Au

gold

78

78

 

81

Tl

thallium

8

8

 

82

Pb

lead

16

16

 

83

Bi

bismuth

32

32

 

90

Th

thorium

79

79

 

92

U

uranium

208

208

 

94

Pu

plutonium

96

96

 

Poisson ratio

μ, dimensionless

number

symbol

name

use

WEL

CRC

4

Be

beryllium

0.032

0.032

 

12

Mg

magnesium

0.29

0.29

 

13

Al

aluminium

0.35

0.35

 

20

Ca

calcium

0.31

0.31

 

21

Sc

scandium

0.279

0.28

0.279

22

Ti

titanium

0.32

0.32

 

23

V

vanadium

0.37

0.37

 

24

Cr

chromium

0.21

0.21

 

26

Fe

iron

0.29

0.29

 

27

Co

cobalt

0.31

0.31

 

28

Ni

nickel

0.31

0.31

 

29

Cu

copper

0.34

0.34

 

30

Zn

zinc

0.25

0.25

 

34

Se

selenium

0.33

0.33

 

38

Sr

strontium

0.28

0.28

 

39

Y

yttrium

0.243

0.24

0.243

40

Zr

zirconium

0.34

0.34

 

41

Nb

niobium

0.40

0.40

 

42

Mo

molybdenum

0.31

0.31

 

44

Ru

ruthenium

0.30

0.30

 

45

Rh

rhodium

0.26

0.26

 

46

Pd

palladium

0.39

0.39

 

47

Ag

silver

0.37

0.37

 

48

Cd

cadmium

0.30

0.30

 

50

Sn

tin

0.36

0.36

 

57

La

lanthanum

(α form) 0.280

0.28

(α form) 0.280

58

Ce

cerium

(γ form) 0.24

0.24

(γ form) 0.24

59

Pr

praseodymium

(α form) 0.281

0.28

(α form) 0.281

60

Nd

neodymium

(α form) 0.281

0.28

(α form) 0.281

61

Pm

promethium

(α form) est. 0.28

0.28

(α form) est. 0.28

62

Sm

samarium

(α form) 0.274

0.27

(α form) 0.274

63

Eu

europium

0.152

0.15

0.152

64

Gd

gadolinium

(α form) 0.259

0.26

(α form) 0.259

65

Tb

terbium

(α form) 0.261

0.26

(α form) 0.261

66

Dy

dysprosium

(α form) 0.247

0.25

(α form) 0.247

67

Ho

holmium

0.231

0.23

0.231

68

Er

erbium

0.237

0.24

0.237

69

Tm

thulium

0.213

0.21

0.213

70

Yb

ytterbium

(β form) 0.207

0.21

(β form) 0.207

71

Lu

lutetium

0.261

0.26

0.261

72

Hf

hafnium

0.37

0.37

 

73

Ta

tantalum

0.34

0.34

 

74

W

tungsten

0.28

0.28

 

75

Re

rhenium

0.30

0.30

 

76

Os

osmium

0.25

0.25

 

77

Ir

iridium

0.26

0.26

 

78

Pt

platinum

0.38

0.38

 

79

Au

gold

0.44

0.44

 

81

Tl

thallium

0.45

0.45

 

82

Pb

lead

0.44

0.44

 

83

Bi

bismuth

0.33

0.33

 

90

Th

thorium

0.27

0.27

 

92

U

uranium

0.23

0.23

 

94

Pu

plutonium

0.21

0.21

 

Bulk modulus

K/(GPa)

number

symbol

name

use

WEL

CRC

other

3

Li

lithium

11

11

 

4

Be

beryllium

130

130

 

5

B

boron

(β form) 185

320

 

β 185(7) GPa, α 224(15) GPa [1]

6

C

carbon

33

33

 

11

Na

sodium

6.3

6.3

 

12

Mg

magnesium

45

45

 

13

Al

aluminium

76

76

 

14

Si

silicon

100

100

 

15

P

phosphorus

11

11

 

16

S

sulfur

7.7

7.7

 

17

Cl

chlorine

 

(liquid) 1.1

 

19

K

potassium

3.1

3.1

 

20

Ca

calcium

17

17

 

21

Sc

scandium

56.6

57

56.6

22

Ti

titanium

110

110

 

23

V

vanadium

160

160

 

24

Cr

chromium

160

160

 

25

Mn

manganese

120

120

 

26

Fe

iron

170

170

 

27

Co

cobalt

180

180

 

28

Ni

nickel

180

180

 

29

Cu

copper

140

140

 

30

Zn

zinc

70

70

 

33

As

arsenic

22

22

 

34

Se

selenium

8.3

8.3

 

35

Br

bromine

 

1.9

 

37

Rb

rubidium

2.5

2.5

 

39

Y

yttrium

41.2

41

41.2

41

Nb

niobium

170

170

 

42

Mo

molybdenum

230

230

 

44

Ru

ruthenium

220

220

 

45

Rh

rhodium

380

380

 

46

Pd

palladium

180

180

 

47

Ag

silver

100

100

 

48

Cd

cadmium

42

42

 

50

Sn

tin

58

58

 

51

Sb

antimony

42

42

 

52

Te

tellurium

65

65

 

53

I

iodine

7.7

7.7

 

55

Cs

caesium

1.6

1.6

 

56

Ba

barium

9.6

9.6

 

57

La

lanthanum

(α form) 27.9

28

(α form) 27.9

58

Ce

cerium

(γ form) 21.5

22

(γ form) 21.5

59

Pr

praseodymium

(α form) 28.8

29

(α form) 28.8

60

Nd

neodymium

(α form) 31.8

32

(α form) 31.8

61

Pm

promethium

(α form) est. 33

33

(α form) est. 33

62

Sm

samarium

(α form) 37.8

38

(α form) 37.8

63

Eu

europium

8.3

8.3

8.3

64

Gd

gadolinium

(α form) 37.9

38

(α form) 37.9

65

Tb

terbium

(α form) 38.7

38.7

(α form) 38.7

66

Dy

dysprosium

(α form) 40.5

41

(α form) 40.5

67

Ho

holmium

40.2

40

40.2

68

Er

erbium

44.4

44

44.4

69

Tm

thulium

44.5

45

44.5

70

Yb

ytterbium

(β form) 30.5

31

(β form) 30.5

71

Lu

lutetium

47.6

48

47.6

72

Hf

hafnium

110

110

 

73

Ta

tantalum

200

200

 

74

W

tungsten

310

310

 

75

Re

rhenium

370

370

 

76

Os

osmium

462

 

 

462 [2]

77

Ir

iridium

320

320

 

78

Pt

platinum

230

230

 

79

Au

gold

220

220

 

80

Hg

mercury

 

25

 

81

Tl

thallium

43

43

 

82

Pb

lead

46

46

 

83

Bi

bismuth

31

31

 

90

Th

thorium

54

54

 

92

U

uranium

100

100

 

Shear modulus

G/(GPa)

number

symbol

name

use

WEL

CRC

3

Li

lithium

4.2

4.2

 

4

Be

beryllium

132

132

 

11

Na

sodium

3.3

3.3

 

12

Mg

magnesium

17

17

 

13

Al

aluminium

26

26

 

19

K

potassium

1.3

1.3

 

20

Ca

calcium

7.4

7.4

 

21

Sc

scandium

29.1

29

29.1

22

Ti

titanium

44

44

 

23

V

vanadium

47

47

 

24

Cr

chromium

115

115

 

26

Fe

iron

82

82

 

27

Co

cobalt

75

75

 

28

Ni

nickel

76

76

 

29

Cu

copper

48

48

 

30

Zn

zinc

43

43

 

34

Se

selenium

3.7

3.7

 

38

Sr

strontium

6.1

6.1

 

39

Y

yttrium

25.6

26

25.6

40

Zr

zirconium

33

33

 

41

Nb

niobium

38

38

 

42

Mo

molybdenum

20

20

 

44

Ru

ruthenium

173

173

 

45

Rh

rhodium

150

150

 

46

Pd

palladium

44

44

 

47

Ag

silver

30

30

 

48

Cd

cadmium

19

19

 

50

Sn

tin

18

18

 

51

Sb

antimony

20

20

 

52

Te

tellurium

16

16

 

56

Ba

barium

4.9

4.9

 

57

La

lanthanum

(α form) 14.3

14

(α form) 14.3

58

Ce

cerium

(γ form) 13.5

14

(γ form) 13.5

59

Pr

praseodymium

(α form) 14.8

15

(α form) 14.8

60

Nd

neodymium

(α form) 16.3

16

(α form) 16.3

61

Pm

promethium

(α form) est. 18

18

(α form) est. 18

62

Sm

samarium

(α form) 19.5

20

(α form) 19.5

63

Eu

europium

7.9

7.9

7.9

64

Gd

gadolinium

(α form) 21.8

22

(α form) 21.8

65

Tb

terbium

(α form) 22.1

22

(α form) 22.1

66

Dy

dysprosium

(α form) 24.7

25

(α form) 24.7

67

Ho

holmium

26.3

26

26.3

68

Er

erbium

28.3

28

28.3

69

Tm

thulium

30.5

31

30.5

70

Yb

ytterbium

(β form) 9.9

9.9

(β form) 9.9

71

Lu

lutetium

27.2

27

27.2

72

Hf

hafnium

30

30

 

73

Ta

tantalum

69

69

 

74

W

tungsten

161

161

 

75

Re

rhenium

178

178

 

76

Os

osmium

222

222

 

77

Ir

iridium

210

210

 

78

Pt

platinum

61

61

 

79

Au

gold

27

27

 

81

Tl

thallium

2.8

2.8

 

82

Pb

lead

5.6

5.6

 

83

Bi

bismuth

12

12

 

90

Th

thorium

31

31

 

92

U

uranium

111

111

 

94

Pu

plutonium

43

43

 

Notes

All values from CRC refer to room temperature. All values from WebElements presumably are also at room temperature.

References

WEL

As quoted at http://www.webelements.com/ from these sources:

  • A.M. James and M.P. Lord in Macmillan's Chemical and Physical Data, Macmillan, London, UK, 1992.

  • G.W.C. Kaye and T.H. Laby in Tables of physical and chemical constants, Longman, London, UK, 15th edition, 1993.

  • G.V. Samsonov (Ed.) in Handbook of the physicochemical properties of the elements, IFI-Plenum, New York, USA, 1968.

  • D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 79th edition, 1998.

CRC

As quoted in an online version of:

  • David R. Lide (ed), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, 2003; Section 4, Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds; Physical Properties of the Rare Earth Metals

which further refers to:

  • Scott, T., in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Vol. 1, Gschneidner, K.A., Jr. and Eyring, L., Eds., North-Holland Physics, Amsterdam, 1978, 591.