a) A quantum wire is a nanostructure, with the diameter of the order of a nanometer (10-9 meters). Alternatively, quantum wires can be defined as structures that have a thickness or diameter constrained to tens of nanometers or less and an unconstrained length. At these scales, quantum mechanical effects are important — which coined the term "quantum wires". Many different types of quantum wires exist, including metallic (e.g., Ni, Pt, Au), semiconducting (e.g., Si, InP, GaN, etc.), and insulating (e.g., SiO2, TiO2).
b) Molecular quantum wires are composed of repeating molecular units either organic (e.g. DNA) or inorganic (e.g. Mo6S9-xIx).
Quantum Wire Presently In Limited Production:
a) Alumina quantum wire
b) Bismuth quantum wire
c) Boron quantum wire
d) Cadmium selenide quantum wire
e) Copper quantum wire
f) Gallium nitride quantum wire
g) Gallium phosphide quantum wire
h) Germanium quantum wire
i) Gold quantum wire
j) Indium phosphide quantum wire
k) Magnesium oxide quantum wire
l) Manganese oxide quantum wire
m) Nickel quantum wire
n) Palladium quantum wire
o) Platinum quantum wire
p) Silicon quantum wire
q) Silicon carbide quantum wire
r) Silicon nitride quantum wire
s) Silver quantum wire
t) Titanium dioxide quantum wire
u) Zinc oxide quantum wire
v) Important Comment: Many of the above quantum wires will have to be custom manufactured due to current lack of commercial demand
Quantum Wire Physical Properties Available:
Presently diameters as small as 12 nanometers
Quantum Wire Typical Applications:
a) Optoelectronics, microelectronics, field emission devises, photonics, clothing fabric, and electronic device applications
b) Quantum wires still belong to the experimental world of laboratories. However, they may complement or replace carbon nanotubes in some applications. Some early experiments have shown how they can be used to build the next generation of computing devices.
c) To create active electronic elements, the first key step was to chemically dope a semiconductor quantum wire. This has already been done to individual quantum wires to create p-type and n-type semiconductors.
d) The next step was to find a way to create a p-n junction, one of the simplest electronic devices. This was achieved in two ways. The first way was to physically cross a p-type wire over an n-type wire. The second method involved chemically doping a single wire with different dopants along the length. This method created a p-n junction with only one wire.
e) After p-n junctions were built with quantum wires, the next logical step was to build logic gates. By connecting several p-n junctions together, researchers have been able to create the basis of all logic circuits: the AND, OR, and NOT gates have all been built from semiconductor quantum wire crossings.
f) It is possible that semiconductor quantum wire crossings will be important to the future of digital computing. Though there are other uses for quantum wires beyond these, the only ones that actually take advantage of physics in the nanometer regime are electronic.
g) Quantum wires are being studied for use as photon ballistic waveguides as interconnects in quantum dot/quantum effect well photon logic arrays. Photons travel inside the tube, electrons travel on the outside shell.
h) When two quantum wires acting as photon waveguides cross each other the juncture acts as a quantum dot.
i) Conducting quantum wires offer the possibility of connecting molecular-scale entities in a molecular computer. Dispersions of conducting quantum wires in different polymers are being investigated for use as transparent electrodes for flexible flat-screen displays.
j) Because of their high Young's moduli, their use in mechanically enhancing composites is being investigated. Because quantum wires appear in bundles, they may be used as tribological additives to improve friction characteristics and reliability of electronic transducers and actuators.
k) Because of their high aspect ratio, quantum wires are also uniquely suited to dielectrophoretic manipulation.
Quantum Wire Packaging:
Usually to customer specification
Quantum Wire TSCA (SARA Title III) Status:
Listed. For further information please call the E.P.A. at +1.202.554.1404
Quantum Wire Safety Notice:
a) Before using quantum wire, the user shall determine the suitability and health risks of the product for its intended use. User assumes all risk and liability whatsoever in connection therewith.