a) Produced by crushing, grinding, precipitation, and classifying high purity, white, calcite limestone.
b) Among the important varieties of limestone are marl, chalk, oolite, travertine, dolomite, and marble.
Limestone ores can be found in two of the three major types of rocks: sedimentary and metamorphic. Sedimentary rocks, as the name suggests, form from sediment or from transported fragments deposited in water. Limestone, for example, is formed from inorganic remains, such as shells and skeletons. Metamorphic rocks—such as marble, slate, quartzite—form when a rock mass is subjected to great heat and pressure. The principal element in the calcium carbonate ore is calcium (Ca). The ore may contain other elements—Magnesium (Mg), Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn)— that affect whiteness, hardness and specific gravity.
Limestone Typical Chemical Properties Available:
a) Purities available from 98% to 99.9%
b) Pharmaceutical (USP) grade
c) Food (FCC) grade
d) Electronic grade
e) Optical grade
Typical Physical Properties Available:
a) Sintered pieces
c) Coarse granules
d) Various grades of ground/ pulverized CaCO3 and precipitated CaCO3
e) Precipitated CaCO3 powder granulations are available down to nanoparticles as fine as 30 nanometers
Limestone Nominal Physical Constants:
Molecular Weight (g/mol.)
pH (saturated solution)
9.3 to 9.8
Loose Bulk Density (lbs/ft3)
Loose Bulk Density (lbs./cu. ft3)
50 to 90
Tapped Density (g/cm3)
0.43 to 0.98
Melting Point (°C)
Specific Heat (Btu/lbs./deg.F)
Thermal Conductivity (W/cm·K)
Mohs Hardness @20°C
Specific Gravity (solids)
Index of Refraction
Limestone Typical Applications:
a) Plastics, rubber, coatings, inks, adhesives, and soil conditioner, building products, plastic filler, ceramic flux, asphalt filler, chemical processing, glass ingredient, water treatment, pesticide granules, dusting agent, welding rods coating, thermosets, thermoplastics, paints, coatings, adhesives, sealants, rubber, pharmaceutical, toothpaste, and food additive
b) Limestone has a wealth of uses: as a flux in steel production and in processing of non-ferrous metals; in bricks, mortar and concrete for construction; as a raw material in glass; in the construction of roads and dams; in the manufacture of paper, paints and dyes, carpeting and other floor coverings; and in the treatment of water, industrial waste, gases and household refuse. It is also used to reduce soil acidity in agriculture, to absorb water and add calcium in food products, and in sugar
c) Limestone is a versatile additive for use in a wide range of plastic and elastomeric applications. Its regular and controlled crystalline shape and ultrafine particle size together with the hydrophobic surface coating, combine to the benefit of both polymer processing and subsequent physical properties.