tag rule

Electronegativities-of-the-Elements from READE

{glossarbot=disable} Electronegativities-of-the-Elements (Pauling scale)

number

symbol

name

use

WEL

CRC

LNG

1

H

hydrogen

2.20

same

2

He

helium

no data

same

3

Li

lithium

0.98

same

4

Be

beryllium

1.57

same

5

B

boron

2.04

same

6

C

carbon

2.55

same

7

N

nitrogen

3.04

same

8

O

oxygen

3.44

same

9

F

fluorine

3.98

3.98

3.98

3.90

10

Ne

neon

no data

same

11

Na

sodium

0.93

same

12

Mg

magnesium

1.31

same

13

Al

aluminium

1.61

same

14

Si

silicon

1.90

same

15

P

phosphorus

2.19

same

16

S

sulfur

2.58

same

17

Cl

chlorine

3.16

same

18

Ar

argon

no data

same

19

K

potassium

0.82

same

20

Ca

calcium

1.00

same

21

Sc

scandium

1.36

same

22

Ti

titanium

1.54

same

23

V

vanadium

1.63

same

24

Cr

chromium

1.66

same

25

Mn

manganese

1.55

same

26

Fe

iron

1.83

same

27

Co

cobalt

1.88

same

28

Ni

nickel

1.91

same

29

Cu

copper

1.90

same

30

Zn

zinc

1.65

same

31

Ga

gallium

1.81

same

32

Ge

germanium

2.01

same

33

As

arsenic

2.18

same

34

Se

selenium

2.55

same

35

Br

bromine

2.96

same

36

Kr

krypton

3.00

3.00

no data

no data

37

Rb

rubidium

0.82

same

38

Sr

strontium

0.95

same

39

Y

yttrium

1.22

same

40

Zr

zirconium

1.33

same

41

Nb

niobium

1.6

same

42

Mo

molybdenum

2.16

same

43

Tc

technetium

1.9

1.9

2.10

2.10

44

Ru

ruthenium

2.2

same

45

Rh

rhodium

2.28

same

46

Pd

palladium

2.20

same

47

Ag

silver

1.93

same

48

Cd

cadmium

1.69

same

49

In

indium

1.78

same

50

Sn

tin

1.96

same

51

Sb

antimony

2.05

same

52

Te

tellurium

2.1

same

53

I

iodine

2.66

same

54

Xe

xenon

2.6

2.6

2.60

no data

55

Cs

caesium

0.79

same

56

Ba

barium

0.89

same

57

La

lanthanum

1.10

same

58

Ce

cerium

1.12

same

59

Pr

praseodymium

1.13

same

60

Nd

neodymium

1.14

same

61

Pm

promethium

no data

same

62

Sm

samarium

1.17

same

63

Eu

europium

no data

same

64

Gd

gadolinium

1.20

same

65

Tb

terbium

no data

same

66

Dy

dysprosium

1.22

same

67

Ho

holmium

1.23

same

68

Er

erbium

1.24

same

69

Tm

thulium

1.25

same

70

Yb

ytterbium

no data

same

71

Lu

lutetium

1.27

1.27

1.0

1.0

72

Hf

hafnium

1.3

same

73

Ta

tantalum

1.5

same

74

W

tungsten

2.36

2.36

1.7

1.7

75

Re

rhenium

1.9

same

76

Os

osmium

2.2

same

77

Ir

iridium

2.20

2.20

2.2

2.2

78

Pt

platinum

2.28

2.28

2.2

2.2

79

Au

gold

2.54

2.54

2.4

2.4

80

Hg

mercury

2.00

2.00

1.9

1.9

81

Tl

thallium

1.62

1.62

1.8

1.8

82

Pb

lead

2.33

2.33

1.8

1.8

83

Bi

bismuth

2.02

2.02

1.9

1.9

84

Po

polonium

2.0

same

85

At

astatine

2.2

same

86

Rn

radon

no data

same

87

Fr

francium

0.7

same

88

Ra

radium

0.9

same

89

Ac

actinium

1.1

same

90

Th

thorium

1.3

same

91

Pa

protactinium

1.5

same

92

U

uranium

1.38

1.38

1.7

1.7

93

Np

neptunium

1.36

1.36

1.3

1.3

94

Pu

plutonium

1.28

1.28

1.3

1.3

95

Am

americium

1.3

1.3

no data

1.3

96

Cm

curium

1.3

1.3

no data

1.3

97

Bk

berkelium

1.3

1.3

no data

1.3

98

Cf

californium

1.3

1.3

no data

1.3

99

Es

einsteinium

1.3

1.3

no data

1.3

100

Fm

fermium

1.3

1.3

no data

1.3

101

Md

mendelevium

1.3

1.3

no data

1.3

102

No

nobelium

1.3

1.3

no data

1.3

Notes:

  • Separate values for each source are only given where one or more sources differ.

  • Electronegativity is not a uniquely defined property and may depend on the definition. The suggested values are all taken from WebElements as a consistent set.

References:

a) WEL-

As quoted at http://www.webelements.com/ from these sources:

  • A.L. Allred, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem., 1961, 17, 215.

  • L. Pauling, The Nature of the Chemical Bond, Cornell Univ., USA, 3rd ed., 1960.

  • J.E. Huheey, E.A. Keiter, and R.L. Keiter in Inorganic Chemistry : Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th edition, HarperCollins, New York, USA, 1993.

b) CRC-

As quoted from these sources in an online version of: David R. Lide (ed), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, 2003; Section 9, Molecular Structure and Spectroscopy; Electronegativity

  • Pauling, L., The Nature of the Chemical Bond, Third Edition, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1960.

  • Allen, L.C., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 111, 9003, 1989.

  • Allred, A.L., J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem., 17, 215, 1961.

c) LNG-

As quoted from these sources in: J.A. Dean (ed), Lange's Handbook of Chemistry (15th Edition), McGraw-Hill, 1999; Section 4; Table 4.5, Electronegativities of the Elements.

  • L. Pauling, The Chemical Bond, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1967.

  • L. C. Allen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111:9003 (1989).

  • A. L. Allred, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 17:215 (1961).