1) A nanoparticle (which historically has included nanopowder, nanocluster, and nanocrystal) is a small particle with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. This definition can be fleshed out further in order to remove ambiguity from future nano nomemeclature.
2) A nanoparticle is an amorphous or semicrystalline zero dimensional (0D) nano structure with at least one dimension between 10 and 100nm and a relatively large (? 15%) size dispersion. A nanocluster is an amorphous/semicrystalline nanostructure with at least one dimension being between 1-10nm and a narrow size distribution. This distinction is an extension of the term "cluster" which is used in inorganic/organometallic chemistry to indicate small molecular cages of fixed sizes. A nanopowder is an agglomeration of noncrystalline nanostructural subunits with at least one dimention less than 100nm.
3) A nanocrystal is any nanomaterial with at least one dimension ? 100nm and that is singlecrystalline. Any particle which exhibits regions of crystllinity should be termed nanoparticle or nanocluster based on dimensions.
Nanoparticle / Nanopowder Chemical Grades Presently Available: (Over 150 options)
Nanoparticle / Nanopowder Grades Available- Special Note:
Other chemistries can be custom manufactured to your chemical specification
Nanoparticle / Nanopowder Physical Properties Usually Available:
3 to 400 nanometers
Nanoparticle / Nanopowder Typical Applications:
1) Nanostructures, coatings, and fillers
2) Some of the most successful commercial nanoparticle / nanopowder applications effective January 2009 are:
a) Drug delivery - nanoparticles for absorption through the skin and eyes (far more pleasant than injections), and for inhalation, to avoid stomach enzymes - which fortunately don't exist in the lungs - destroying drugs; nanocapsules for delayed release; and dendrimers for drug delivery.
b) Solar energy - tougher, more efficient solar cells are already under development, with the promise of drastic cost reductions on the horizon. Some will even produce hydrogen.
c) Fuel cells - the NEC hopes to have these on the market in 2003/2004, though let's see what happens the next time I try to take enough methanol on a plane from Madrid to Tokyo to run my laptop, PDA and MP3 player.
d) Display technologies and e-paper - a competitive area, with e-paper and carbon-nanotube-based field-emission displays expected to be slugging it out with liquid-crystal displays (with carbon-nanotube-based backlights, of course) in the next two years.
e) Nanotubes - both as raw materials and as products. Multiwalled nanotubes, the cheap and dirty kind, are already going into composites, producing not much in terms of structural improvements but increasing conductivity at much lower filler loads. Single-walled nanotubes will have a much bigger effect in the longer term.
f) Catalysis - or old nanotech as people in the industry call it. This has a huge potential geopolitical impact, especially after recent developments in the energy business.
g) Nanocomposites - mainly clay-based for structural applications(increased strength) or with novel properties. These are already penetrating the automotive and aerospace industries.
h) Storage technologies - watch out for Millipede, magnetic random access memory (RAM), nanotube RAM and terabyte hard drives in the next few years.
i) Nanocrystalline bulk materials, or steels containing nanoparticulates - some companies are already using steel with nanoparticulate carbon added during the rolling process.
j) Coatings - extra hard or with special properties, such as being electrochromic or self-cleaning, are under investigation by everyone from car manufacturers to architects.
k) Sensors - bio and chemical sensors made from nanowires andnanotubes are hot property following the September 11 plane crashes.
l) Bioanalysis - devices using atomic force microscopes and quantum dots are already being readied for market.
m) Textiles - nanofibres in stain-resistant trousers are already available, with electrospun nanofibres and nanotube-enhanced fibers coming soon.
n) Cosmetics and sun screen products
Nanomaterial Industry Outlook:
"Global nanomaterial demand will rise 21 percent annually through 2013. Health care will surpass electronics as the largest market in value terms by 2013, while the energy market grows the fastest. The US, Western Europe and Japan will remain the largest markets, while demand in China leads gains". Source: Freedonia Group
Nanoparticle / Nanopowder TSCA (SARA Title III) Status:
Varies. For further information please call the E.P.A. at +1.202.554.1404
Nanoparticle / Nanopowder Health & Safety Notice:
1) Before using nanoparticles or nanopowders, the user shall determine the suitability of the product for its intended use, and user assumes all risk and liability whatsoever in connection therewith.
3) With the publication of the "Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology" document, NIOSH hopes to: raise awareness of the occupational safety and health issues involved with nanotechnology; make recommendations on occupational safety and health best practices in the production and use of nanomaterials; facilitate dialogue between NIOSH and its external partners in industry, labor and academia; respond to requests for authoritative safety and health guidelines; and, identify information gaps and areas for future study and research.