tag rule

Vapor Pressures of the Elements from READE

{glossarbot=disable} Vapor Pressures of the Elements

P/(Pa) 1 10 100 200 1 k 2 k 5 k 10 k 20 k 50 k 100 k 101325
reference
1 H hydrogen
use (T/K)               15     20  
CRC.a (T/°C)               -258.6     -252.8  
KAL (T/K)       10 (s) 11.4 (s) 12.2 (s) 13.4 (s) 14.5 16.0 18.2   20.3
2 He helium
use (T/K)               3     4  
CRC.b (T/°C)               -270.6     -268.9  
KAL (T/K)       1.3 1.66 1.85 2.17 2.48 2.87 3.54   4.22
3 Li lithium
use (T/K) 797 885 995   1144     1337     1610  
CRC.f,k (T/°C) 524.3 612.3 722.1   871.2     1064.3     1337.1  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 10.673 - 8310 / (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 1000 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.061 - 8023 / (T/K)
797.4 885.4 995.3                  
KAL (T/K)       1040 1145 1200 1275 1345 1415 1530   1630
SMI.a (T/K) liquid, 325..725 °C: log (P/Pa) = 9.625 - 7480 / (T/K)
777 867 981                  
4 Be beryllium
use (T/K) 1462 1608 1791   2023     2327     2742  
CRC.b (T/°C) 1189 (s) 1335 1518   1750     2054     2469  
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 13.048 - 17020 / (T/K) - 0.4440 log (T/K)
1461.8                      
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 1800 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.792 - 15731 / (T/K)
  1606.5 1789.2                  
SMI.c,g (T/K) solid, 942..1284 °C: log (P/Pa) = 12.115 - 18220 / (T/K)
1504                      
SMI.c,g (T/K) liquid, 1284..1582 °C: log (P/Pa) = 11.075 - 16590 / (T/K)
  1647 1828                  
5 B boron
use (T/K) 2348 2562 2822   3141     3545     4072  
CRC.b (T/°C) 2075 2289 2549   2868     3272     3799  
SMI.c (T/K) solid, 1052..1648 °C: log (P/Pa) = 13.255 - 21370 / (T/K)
1612 1744 1899                  
6 C carbon (graphite)
use (T/K)   2839 3048   3289     3572     3908  
CRC.h (T/°C)   2566 (s) 2775 (s)   3016 (s)     3299 (s)     3635 (s)  
7 N nitrogen
use (T/K) 37 41 46   53     62     77  
CRC.a,d (T/°C) -236 (s) -232 (s) -226.8 (s)   -220.2 (s)     -211.1 (s)     -195.9  
KAL (T/K)       48.1 (s) 53.0 (s) 55.4 (s) 59.0 (s) 62.1 (s) 65.8 71.8   77.4
8 O oxygen
use (T/K)         61     73     90  
CRC.a,i (T/°C)         -211.9     -200.5     -183.1  
KAL (T/K)       55.4 61.3 64.3 68.8 72.7 77.1 83.9   90.2
9 F fluorine
use (T/K) 38 44 50   58     69     85  
CRC.a,d (T/°C) -235 (s) -229.5 (s) -222.9 (s)   -214.8     -204.3     -188.3  
KAL (T/K)       53 58 61 65.3 68.9 73.0 79.3   85.0
10 Ne neon
use (T/K) 12 13 15   18     21     27  
CRC.b (T/°C) -261 (s) -260 (s) -258 (s)   -255 (s)     -252 (s)     -246.1  
KAL (T/K)       16.3 (s) 18.1 (s) 19.0 (s) 20.4 (s) 21.6 (s) 22.9 (s) 24.9   27.1
11 Na sodium
use (T/K) 554 617 697   802     946     1153  
CRC.f,k (T/°C) 280.6 344.2 424.3   529     673     880.2  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 10.304 - 5603 / (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 700 K: log (P/Pa) = 9.710 - 5377 / (T/K)
553.8 617.3 697.4                  
KAL (T/K)       729 807 846 904 954 1010 1095   1175
SMI.a (T/K) liquid, 158..437 °C: log (P/Pa) = 9.835 - 5480 / (T/K)
557 620 699                  
12 Mg magnesium
use (T/K) 701 773 861   971     1132     1361  
CRC.b (T/°C) 428 (s) 500 (s) 588 (s)   698     859     1088  
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 13.495 - 7813 / (T/K) - 0.8253 log (T/K)
700.9 772.7 861.2 892.0                
KAL (T/K)       891 979 1025 1085 1140 1205 1295   1375
SMI.a (T/K) solid, 287..605 °C: log (P/Pa) = 10.945 - 7741 / (T/K)
707 778 865                  
13 Al aluminium
use (T/K) 1482 1632 1817   2054     2364     2790  
CRC.b (T/°C) 1209 1359 1544   1781     2091     2517  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 14.465 - 17342 / (T/K) - 0.7927 log (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 1800 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.917 - 16211 / (T/K)
1484.9 1634.7 1818.0                  
KAL (T/K)       1885 2060 2140 2260 2360 2430 2640   2790
SMI.c,l (T/K) liquid, 843..1465 °C: log (P/Pa) = 11.115 - 15630 / (T/K)
1406 1545                    
14 Si silicon
use (T/K) 1908 2102 2339   2636     3021     3537  
CRC.b (T/°C) 1635 1829 2066   2363     2748     3264  
KAL (T/K)       2380 2590 2690 2840 2970 3100 3310   3490
SMI.c (T/K) solid, 1024..1410 °C: log (P/Pa) = 12.325 - 19720 / (T/K)
1600                      
SMI.c (T/K) liquid, 1410..1670 °C: log (P/Pa) = 11.675 - 18550 / (T/K)
  1738 1917                  
15 P phosphorus (white)
use (T/K) 279 307 342   388     453     549  
CRC.c,e (T/°C) 6 (s) 34 (s) 69   115     180     276  
KAL (T/K)       365 398 414 439 460 484 520.5   553.6
15 P phosphorus (red)
use (T/K) 455 489 529   576     635     704  
CRC.b,c (T/°C) 182 (s) 216 (s) 256 (s)   303 (s)     362 (s)     431 (s)  
16 S sulfur
use (T/K) 375 408 449   508     591     717  
CRC.c (T/°C) 102 (s) 135 176   235     318     444  
KAL (T/K)       462 505.7 528.0 561.3 590.1 622.5 672.4   717.8
17 Cl chlorine
use (T/K) 128 139 153   170     197     239  
CRC.a (T/°C) -145 (s) -133.7 (s) -120.2 (s)   -103.6 (s)     -76.1     -34.2  
KAL (T/K)       158 (s) 170 (s) 176.3 187.4 197.0 207.8 224.3   239.2
18 Ar argon
use (T/K)   47 53   61     71     87  
CRC.a,d,l (T/°C)   -226.4 (s) -220.3 (s)   -212.4 (s)     -201.7 (s)     -186.0  
KAL (T/K)       55.0 (s) 60.7 (s) 63.6 (s) 67.8 (s) 71.4 (s) 75.4 (s) 81.4 (s)   87.3
19 K potassium
use (T/K) 473 530 601   697     832     1029  
CRC.f,k (T/°C) 200.2 256.5 328   424     559     756.2  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 9.967 - 4646 / (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 600 K: log (P/Pa) = 9.408 - 4453 / (T/K)
473.3 529.6 601.1                  
KAL (T/K)       633 704 740 794 841 894 975   1050
SMI.a (T/K) liquid, 91..338 °C: log (P/Pa) = 9.485 - 4503 / (T/K)
475 531 602                  
20 Ca calcium
use (T/K) 864 956 1071   1227     1443     1755  
CRC.b (T/°C) 591 (s) 683 (s) 798 (s)   954     1170     1482  
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 15.133 - 9517 / (T/K) - 1.4030 log (T/K)
864.2 956.4 1071.5 1112.0                
KAL (T/K)       1105 1220 1280 1365 1440 1525 1650   1765
SMI.a (T/K) 408..817 °C: log (P/Pa) = 10.425 - 9055 / (T/K)
869 961 1075                  
21 Sc scandium
use (T/K) 1645 1804 (2006)   (2266)     (2613)     (3101)  
CRC.c (T/°C) 1372 (s) 1531 (s) 1733 (i)   1993 (i)     2340 (i)     2828 (i)  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 11.656 - 19721 / (T/K) + 0.2885 log (T/K) - 0.3663 (T/K)-3
CR2 liquid, m.p. to 2000 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.801 - 17681 / (T/K)
SMI.c (T/K) 1058..1804 °C: log (P/Pa) = 11.065 - 18570 / (T/K)
1678 1845 2049                  
22 Ti titanium
use (T/K) 1982 2171 (2403)   2692     3064     3558  
CRC.b (T/°C) 1709 1898 2130 (e)   2419     2791     3285  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 16.931 - 24991 / (T/K) - 1.3376 log (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2400 K: log (P/Pa) = 11.364 - 22747 / (T/K)
2001.7 2194.8                    
SMI.c (T/K) solid, 1134..1727 °C: log (P/Pa) = 10.375 - 18640 / (T/K)
1797 1988                    
SMI.c (T/K) liquid, 1727..1965 °C: log (P/Pa) = 11.105 - 20110 / (T/K)
    2209                
23 V vanadium
use (T/K) 2101 2289 2523   2814     3187     3679  
CRC.b (T/°C) 1828 (s) 2016 2250   2541     2914     3406  
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 14.750 - 27132 / (T/K) - 0.5501 log (T/K)
2099.6                      
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2500 K: log (P/Pa) = 11.935 - 25011 / (T/K)
  2287.2 2517.5                  
SMI.c (T/K) 1465..2207 °C: log (P/Pa) = 12.445 - 26620 / (T/K)
2139 2326                    
24 Cr chromium
use (T/K) 1656 1807 1991   2223     2530     2942  
CRC.b (T/°C) 1383 (s) 1534 (s) 1718 (s)   1950     2257     2669  
CR2 solid, 298 K to 2000 K: log (P/Pa) = 11.806 - 20733 / (T/K) + 0.4391 log (T/K) - 0.4094 (T/K)-3
KAL (T/K)       2020 2180 2260 2370 2470 2580 2730   2870
SMI.c,l (T/K) solid, 907..1504 °C: log (P/Pa) = 12.005 - 17560 / (T/K)
1463 1596 1755                  
25 Mn manganese
use (T/K) 1228 1347 1493   1691     1955     2333  
CRC.b (T/°C) 955 (s) 1074 (s) 1220 (s)   1418     1682     2060  
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 17.811 - 15097 / (T/K) - 1.7896 log (T/K)
1229.2 1346.6 1490.0                  
KAL (T/K)       1560 1710 1780 1890 1980 2080 2240   2390
SMI.c (T/K) 717..1251 °C: log (P/Pa) = 11.375 - 14100 / (T/K)
1240 1359 1504                  
26 Fe iron
use (T/K) 1728 1890 2091   2346     2679     3132  
CRC.b (T/°C) 1455 (s) 1617 1818   2073     2406     2859  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 12.106 - 21723 / (T/K) + 0.4536 log (T/K) - 0.5846 (T/K)-3
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2100 K: log (P/Pa) = 11.353 - 19574 / (T/K)
  1890.7 2092.8                  
KAL (T/K)       2110 2290 2380 2500 2610 2720 2890   3030
SMI.c,f (T/K) solid, 1094..1535 °C: log (P/Pa) = 11.755 - 20000 / (T/K)
1701                      
SMI.c,f (T/K) liquid, 1535..1783 °C: log (P/Pa) = 12.535 - 21400 / (T/K)
  1855 2031                  
27 Co cobalt
use (T/K) 1790 1960 2165   2423     2755     3198  
CRC.b (T/°C) 1517 1687 1892   2150     2482     2925  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 15.982 - 22576 / (T/K) - 1.0280 log (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2150 K: log (P/Pa) = 11.494 - 20578 / (T/K)
1790.3 1960.9 2167.5                  
SMI.c (T/K) 1249..2056 °C: log (P/Pa) = 11.555 - 21960 / (T/K)
1900 2081 2298                  
28 Ni nickel
use (T/K) 1783 1950 2154   2410     2741     3184  
CRC.b (T/°C) 1510 1677 1881   2137     2468     2911  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 15.563 - 22606 / (T/K) - 0.8717 log (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2150 K: log (P/Pa) = 11.672 - 20765 / (T/K)
1779.0 1945.7 2146.9                  
KAL (T/K)       2230 2410 2500 2630 2740 2860 3030   3180
SMI.c,q solid, 1157..1455 °C: log (P/Pa) = 12.405 - 21840 / (T/K)
SMI.c,q (T/K) liquid, 1455..1884 °C: log (P/Pa) = 11.675 - 20600 / (T/K)
1764 1930 2129                  
29 Cu copper
use (T/K) 1509 1661 1850   2089     2404     2836  
CRC.b (T/°C) 1236 1388 1577   1816     2131     2563  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 14.129 - 17748 / (T/K) - 0.7317 log (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 1850 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.855 - 16415 / (T/K)
1512.2 1665.7 1853.8                  
KAL (T/K)       1940 2110 2200 2320 2420 2540 2710   2860
SMI.c,f solid, 946..1083 °C: log (P/Pa) = 11.935 - 18060 / (T/K)
SMI.c,f (T/K) liquid, 1083..1628 °C: log (P/Pa) = 10.845 - 16580 / (T/K)
1529 1684 1875                  
30 Zn zinc
use (T/K) 610 670 750   852     990     (1185)  
CRC.b (T/°C) 337 (s) 397 (s) 477   579     717     912 (e)  
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 11.108 - 6776 / (T/K)
610.0 670.4                    
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 750 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.384 - 6286 / (T/K)
    749.8                  
KAL (T/K)       780 854 891 945 991 1040 1120   1185
SMI.a (T/K) solid, 211..405 °C: log (P/Pa) = 11.065 - 6744 / (T/K)
609 670                    
31 Ga gallium
use (T/K) 1310 1448 1620   1838     2125     2518  
CRC.b (T/°C) 1037 1175 1347   1565     1852     2245  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 11.663 - 14208 / (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 1600 K: log (P/Pa) = 11.760 - 13984 / (T/K) - 0.3413 log (T/K)
1307.4 1444.4 1613.8                  
KAL (T/K)       1665 1820 1900 2000 2100 2200 2350   2480
SMI.c (T/K) liquid, 771..1443 °C: log (P/Pa) = 9.915 - 13360 / (T/K)
1347 1499 1688                  
32 Ge germanium
use (T/K) 1644 1814 2023   2287     2633     3104  
CRC.b (T/°C) 1371 1541 1750   2014     2360     2831  
SMI.c (T/K) 897..1635 °C: log (P/Pa) = 10.065 - 15150 / (T/K)
1505 1671 1878                  
33 As arsenic
use (T/K) 553 596 646   706     781     874  
CRC.c (T/°C) 280 (s) 323 (s) 373 (s)   433 (s)     508 (s)     601 (s)  
KAL (T/K)       656 (s) 701 (s) 723 (s) 754 (s) 780 (s) 808 (s) 849 (s)   883 (s)
34 Se selenium
use (T/K) 500 552 617   704     813     958  
CRC.c (T/°C) 227 279 344   431     540     685  
KAL (T/K)       636 695 724 767 803 844 904   958
35 Br bromine
use (T/K) 185 201 220   244     276     332  
CRC.a (T/°C) -87.7 (s) -71.8 (s) -52.7 (s)   -29.3 (s)     2.5     58.4  
KAL (T/K)       227 (s) 244.1 (s) 252.1 (s) 263.6 (s) 275.7 290.0 312.0   332.0
36 Kr krypton
use (T/K) 59 65 74   84     99     120  
CRC.d (T/°C) -214.0 (s) -208.0 (s) -199.4 (s)   -188.9 (s)     -174.6 (s)     -153.6  
KAL (T/K)       77 (s) 84.3 (s) 88.1 (s) 93.8 (s) 98.6 (s) 103.9 (s) 112.0 (s)   119.7
37 Rb rubidium
use (T/K) 434 486 552   641     769     958  
CRC.f,k (T/°C) 160.4 212.5 278.9   368     496.1     685.3  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 9.863 - 4215 / (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 550 K: log (P/Pa) = 9.318 - 4040 / (T/K)
433.6 485.7 552.1                  
KAL (T/K)       583 649 684 735 779 829 907   978
SMI.d (T/K) liquid, 59.4..283 °C: log (P/Pa) = 9.545 - 4132 / (T/K)
433 484 548                  
38 Sr strontium
use (T/K) 796 882 990   1139     1345     1646  
CRC.b (T/°C) 523 (s) 609 (s) 717 (s)   866     1072     1373  
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 14.232 - 8572 / (T/K) - 1.1926 log (T/K)
795.7 882.0 989.9 1028.0                
KAL (T/K)       1040 (s) 1150 1205 1285 1355 1430 1550   1660
SMI.c (T/K) solid, 361..750 °C: log (P/Pa) = 10.255 - 8324 / (T/K)
812 899 1008                  
39 Y yttrium
use (T/K) 1883 2075 (2320)   (2627)     (3036)     (3607)  
CRC.c (T/°C) 1610.1 1802.3 2047 (i)   2354 (i)     2763 (i)     3334 (i)  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 14.741 - 22306 / (T/K) - 0.8705 log (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2300 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.801 - 20341 / (T/K)
1883.3 2075.4                    
SMI.c (T/K) 1249..2056 °C: log (P/Pa) = 11.555 - 21970 / (T/K)
1901 2081 2299                  
40 Zr zirconium
use (T/K) 2639 2891 3197   3575     4053     4678  
CRC.b (T/°C) 2366 2618 2924   3302     3780     4405  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 15.014 - 31512 / (T/K) - 0.7890 log (T/K)
CR2 liquid, m.p. to 2500 K: log (P/Pa) = 11.812 - 30295 / (T/K)
SMI.c (T/K) solid, 1527..2127 °C: log (P/Pa) = 11.505 - 25870 / (T/K)
2249                      
SMI.c (T/K) liquid, 2127..2459 °C: log (P/Pa) = 12.165 - 27430 / (T/K)
  2457 2698                  
41 Nb niobium
use (T/K) 2942 3207 3524   3910     4393     5013  
CRC.b (T/°C) 2669 2934 3251   3637     4120     4740  
CR2 solid, 298 K to 2500 K: log (P/Pa) = 13.828 - 37818 / (T/K) - 0.2575 log (T/K)
SMI.n 2194..2539 °C: log (P/Pa) = 13.495 - 40400 / (T/K)
42 Mo molybdenum
use (T/K) 2742 2994 3312   3707     4212     4879  
CRC.b (T/°C) 2469 (s) 2721 3039   3434     3939     4606  
CR2 solid, 298 K to 2500 K: log (P/Pa) = 16.535 - 34626 / (T/K) - 1.1331 log (T/K)
KAL (T/K)       3420 3720 3860 4060 4220 4410 4680   4900
SMI.r (T/K) solid, 1923..2533 °C: log (P/Pa) = 10.925 - 30310 / (T/K)
2774                      
43 Tc technetium
use (T/K) (2727) (2998) (3324)   (3726)     (4234)     (4894)  
CRC.b (T/°C) 2454 (e) 2725 (e) 3051 (e)   3453 (e)     3961 (e)     4621 (e)  
44 Ru ruthenium
use (T/K) 2588 2811 3087   3424     3845     4388  
CRC.b (T/°C) 2315 (s) 2538 2814   3151     3572     4115  
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 14.761 - 34154 / (T/K) - 0.4723 log (T/K)
2597.6                      
SMI.c (T/K) 1913..2946 °C: log (P/Pa) = 12.625 - 33800 / (T/K)
2677 2908 3181                  
45 Rh rhodium
use (T/K) 2288 2496 2749   3063     3405     3997  
CRC.b (T/°C) 2015 2223 2476   2790     3132     3724  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 15.174 - 29010 / (T/K) - 0.7068 log (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2500 K: log (P/Pa) = 11.808 - 26792 / (T/K)
2269.0 2478.9                    
SMI.c (T/K) 1681..2607 °C: log (P/Pa) = 12.675 - 30400 / (T/K)
2398 2604 2848                  
46 Pd palladium
use (T/K) 1721 1897 2117   2395     2753     3234  
CRC.b (T/°C) 1448 (s) 1624 1844   2122     2480     2961  
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 14.508 - 19813 / (T/K) - 0.9258 log (T/K)
1721.0                      
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2100 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.432 - 17899 / (T/K)
  1897.7                    
SMI.c (T/K) 1156..2000 °C: log (P/Pa) = 10.585 - 19230 / (T/K)
1817 2006 2240                  
47 Ag silver
use (T/K) 1283 1413 1575   1782     2055     2433  
CRC.b (T/°C) 1010 1140 1302   1509     1782     2160  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 14.133 - 14999 / (T/K) - 0.7845 log (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 1600 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.758 - 13827 / (T/K)
1285.3 1417.0 1578.8                  
KAL (T/K)       1640 1790 1865 1970 2060 2160 2310   2440
SMI.a solid, 767..961 °C: log (P/Pa) = 11.405 - 14850 / (T/K)
SMI.a (T/K) liquid, 961..1353 °C: log (P/Pa) = 10.785 - 14090 / (T/K)
1306 1440 1604                  
48 Cd cadmium
use (T/K) 530 583 654   745     867     1040  
CRC.b (T/°C) 257 (s) 310 (s) 381   472     594     767  
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 10.945 - 5799 / (T/K)
529.8 583.1                    
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 650 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.248 - 5392 / (T/K)
    653.7                  
KAL (T/K)       683 748 781 829 870 915 983   1045
SMI.a (T/K) solid, 148..321 °C: log (P/Pa) = 10.905 - 5798 / (T/K)
532 585                    
49 In indium
use (T/K) 1196 1325 1485   1690     1962     2340  
CRC.b (T/°C) 923 1052 1212   1417     1689     2067  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 10.997 - 12548 / (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 1500 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.380 - 12276 / (T/K)
1182.7 1308.7 1464.9                  
SMI.c,m (T/K) liquid, 667..1260 °C: log (P/Pa) = 10.055 - 12150 / (T/K)
1208 1342 1508                  
50 Sn tin
use (T/K) 1497 1657 1855   2107     2438     2893  
CRC.b (T/°C) 1224 1384 1582   1834     2165     2620  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 11.042 - 15710 / (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 1850 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.268 - 15332 / (T/K)
1493.2 1654.3 1854.4                  
KAL (T/K)       1930 2120 2210 2350 2470 2600 2800   2990
SMI.c (T/K) liquid, 823..1609 °C: log (P/Pa) = 9.095 - 13110 / (T/K)
1441 1620 1848                  
51 Sb antimony
use (T/K) 807 876 1011   1219     1491     1858  
CRC.b,c (T/°C) 534 (s) 603 (s) 738   946     1218     1585  
KAL (T/K)       1065 1220 1295 1405 1495 1595 1740   1890
SMI.c (T/K) 466..904 °C: log (P/Pa) = 10.545 - 9913 / (T/K)
940 1039 1160                  
52 Te tellurium
use (T/K)     (775)   (888)     1042     1266  
CRC.d (T/°C)     502 (e)   615 (e)     768.8     992.4  
KAL (T/K)       806 888 929 990 1040 1100 1190   1270
53 I iodine (rhombic)
use (T/K) 260 282 309   342     381     457  
CRC.a,b (T/°C) -12.8 (s) 9.3 (s) 35.9 (s)   68.7 (s)     108 (s)     184.0  
KAL (T/K)       318 (s) 341.8 (s) 353.1 (s) 369.3 (s) 382.7 (s) 400.8 430.6   457.5
54 Xe xenon
use (T/K) 83 92 103   117     137     165  
CRC.d,m (T/°C) -190 (s) -181 (s) -170 (s)   -155.8 (s)     -136.6 (s)     -108.4  
KAL (T/K)       107 (s) 117.3 (s) 122.5 (s) 130.1 (s) 136.6 (s) 143.8 (s) 154.7 (s)   165.0
55 Cs caesium
use (T/K) 418 469 534   623     750     940  
CRC.f,k (T/°C) 144.5 195.6 260.9   350.0     477.1     667.0  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 9.717 - 3999 / (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 550 K: log (P/Pa) = 9.171 - 3830 / (T/K)
417.6 468.7 534.1                  
KAL (T/K)       559 624 657 708 752 802 883   959
SMI.e (T/K) liquid, 45..277 °C: log (P/Pa) = 8.985 - 3774 / (T/K)
420 473 540                  
56 Ba barium
use (T/K) 911 1038 1185   1388     1686     2170  
CRC.e (T/°C) 638 (s) 765 912   1115     1413     1897  
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 17.411 - 9690 / (T/K) - 2.2890 log (T/K)
911.0                      
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 1200 K: log (P/Pa) = 9.013 - 8163 / (T/K)
  1018.7 1164.0                  
KAL (T/K)       1165 1290 1360 1455 1540 1635 1780   1910
SMI.c (T/K) 418..858 °C: log (P/Pa) = 10.005 - 8908 / (T/K)
890 989 1113                  
57 La lanthanum
use (T/K) (2005) (2208) (2458)   (2772)     (3178)     (3726)  
CRC.c (T/°C) 1732 (i) 1935 (i) 2185 (i)   2499 (i)     2905 (i)     3453 (i)  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 12.469 - 22551 / (T/K) - 0.3142 log (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2450 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.917 - 21855 / (T/K)
2001.9 2203.8 2450.9                  
SMI.c (T/K) liquid, 1023..1754 °C: log (P/Pa) = 11.005 - 18000 / (T/K)
1636 1799 1999                  
58 Ce cerium
use (T/K) 1992 2194 2442   2754     3159     3705  
CRC.g (T/°C) 1719 1921 2169   2481     2886     3432  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 11.145 - 21752 / (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2450 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.617 - 21200 / (T/K)
1996.8 2204.4 2460.3                  
SMI.c (T/K) liquid, 1004..1599 °C: log (P/Pa) = 12.865 - 20100 / (T/K)
1562 1694 1850                  
59 Pr praseodymium
use (T/K) 1771 1973 (2227)   (2571)     (3054)     (3779)  
CRC.c (T/°C) 1497.7 1699.4 1954 (i)   2298 (i)     2781 (i)     3506 (i)  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 13.865 - 18720 / (T/K) - 0.9512 log (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2200 K: log (P/Pa) = 9.778 - 17315 / (T/K)
1770.8 1972.5                    
60 Nd neodymium
use (T/K) 1595 1774 1998   (2296)     (2715)     (3336)  
CRC.c (T/°C) 1322.3 1501.2 1725.3   2023 (i)     2442 (i)     3063 (i)  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 14.002 - 17264 / (T/K) - 0.9519 log (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2000 K: log (P/Pa) = 9.918 - 15824 / (T/K)
1595.5 1774.4 1998.5                  
62 Sm samarium
use (T/K) 1001 1106 1240   (1421)     (1675)     (2061)  
CRC.c (T/°C) 728 (s) 833 (s) 967 (s)   1148 (i)     1402 (i)     1788 (i)  
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 14.994 - 11034 / (T/K) - 1.3287 log (T/K)
1002.5 1109.2 1242.2 1289.0                
63 Eu europium
use (T/K) 863 957 1072   1234     1452     1796  
CRC.g (T/°C) 590 (s) 684 (s) 799 (s)   961     1179     1523  
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 14.246 - 9459 / (T/K) - 1.1661 log (T/K)
874.6 968.8 1086.5                  
64 Gd gadolinium
use (T/K) (1836) (2028) (2267)   (2573)     (2976)     (3535)  
CRC.c (T/°C) 1563 (i) 1755 (i) 1994 (i)   2300 (i)     2703 (i)     3262 (i)  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 13.350 - 20861 / (T/K) - 0.5775 log (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2250 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.563 - 19389 / (T/K)
1835.6 2027.5 2264.3                  
65 Tb terbium
use (T/K) 1789 1979 (2201)   (2505)     (2913)     (3491)  
CRC.c (T/°C) 1516.1 1706.1 1928 (i)   2232 (i)     2640 (i)     3218 (i)  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 14.516 - 20457 / (T/K) - 0.9247 log (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2200 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.417 - 18639 / (T/K)
1789.3 1979.3 2214.4                  
66 Dy dysprosium
use (T/K) 1378 1523 (1704)   (1954)     (2304)     (2831)  
CRC.c (T/°C) 1105 (s) 1250 (s) 1431 (i)   1681 (i)     2031 (i)     2558 (i)  
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 14.585 - 15336 / (T/K) - 1.1114 log (T/K)
1382.3 1526.5                    
67 Ho holmium
use (T/K) 1432 1584 (1775)   (2040)     (2410)     (2964)  
CRC.c (T/°C) 1159 (s) 1311 (s) 1502 (i)   1767 (i)     2137 (i)     2691 (i)  
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 14.791 - 15899 / (T/K) - 1.1753 log (T/K)
1434.8 1585.2                    
68 Er erbium
use (T/K) 1504 1663 (1885)   (2163)     (2552)     (3132)  
CRC.c (T/°C) 1231 (s) 1390 (s) 1612 (i)   1890 (i)     2279 (i)     2859 (i)  
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 14.922 - 16642 / (T/K) - 1.2154 log (T/K)
1504.7 1663.0                    
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 1900 K: log (P/Pa) = 9.674 - 14380 / (T/K)
    1873.9                  
69 Tm thulium
use (T/K) 1117 1235 1381   1570     (1821)     (2217)  
CRC.c (T/°C) 844 (s) 962 (s) 1108 (s)   1297 (s)     1548 (i)     1944 (i)  
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to 1400 K: log (P/Pa) = 13.888 - 12270 / (T/K) - 0.9564 log (T/K)
1118.3 1235.5 1381.0                  
70 Yb ytterbium
use (T/K) 736 813 910   1047     (1266)     (1465)  
CRC.c (T/°C) 463 (s) 540 (s) 637 (s)   774 (s)     993 (i)     1192 (i)  
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to 900 K: log (P/Pa) = 14.117 - 8111 / (T/K) - 1.0849 log (T/K)
737.0 814.4                    
71 Lu lutetium
use (T/K) 1906 2103 2346   (2653)     (3072)     (3663)  
CRC.c (T/°C) 1633 (s) 1829.8 2072.8   2380 (i)     2799 (i)     3390 (i)  
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 13.799 - 22423 / (T/K) - 0.6200 log (T/K)
1905.9                      
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2350 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.654 - 20302 / (T/K)
  2103.0 2346.0                  
72 Hf hafnium
use (T/K) 2689 2954 3277   3679     4194     4876  
CRC.e (T/°C) 2416 2681 3004   3406     3921     4603  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 14.451 - 32482 / (T/K) - 0.6735 log (T/K)
73 Ta tantalum
use (T/K) 3297 3597 3957   4395     4939     5634  
CRC.b (T/°C) 3024 3324 3684   4122     4666     5361  
CR2 solid, 248 K to 2500 K: log (P/Pa) = 21.813 - 41346 / (T/K) - 3.2152 log (T/K) + 0.7437 (T/K)-3
SMI.o,p solid, 2407..2820 °C: log (P/Pa) = 12.125 - 40210 / (T/K)
74 W tungsten
use (T/K) 3477 3773 4137   4579     5127     5823  
CRC.b (T/°C) 3204 (s) 3500 3864   4306     4854     5550  
CR2 solid, 298 K to 2350 K: log (P/Pa) = 7.951 - 44094 / (T/K) + 1.3677 log (T/K)
CR2 solid, 2200 K to 2500 K: log (P/Pa) = -49.521 - 57687 / (T/K) - 12.2231 log (T/K)
KAL (T/K)       4300 4630 4790 5020 5200 5400 5690   5940
SMI.s (T/K) solid, 2554..3309 °C: log (P/Pa) = 11.365 - 40260 / (T/K)
3542                      
75 Re rhenium
use (T/K) 3303 3614 4009   4500     5127     5954  
CRC.b (T/°C) 3030 (s) 3341 3736   4227     4854     5681  
CR2 solid, 298 K to 2500 K: log (P/Pa) = 16.549 - 40726 / (T/K) - 1.1629 log (T/K)
76 Os osmium
use (T/K) 3160 3423 3751   4148     4638     5256  
CRC.b (T/°C) 2887 (s) 3150 3478   3875     4365     4983  
CR2 solid, 298 K to 2500 K: log (P/Pa) = 14.425 - 41198 / (T/K) - 0.3896 log (T/K)
SMI.c (T/K) 2101..3221 °C: log (P/Pa) = 12.715 - 37000 / (T/K)
2910 3158 3453                  
77 Ir iridium
use (T/K) 2713 2957 3252   3614     4069     4659  
CRC.b (T/°C) 2440 (s) 2684 2979   3341     3796     4386  
CR2 solid, 298 K to 2500 K: log (P/Pa) = 15.512 - 35099 / (T/K) - 0.7500 log (T/K)
SMI.c (T/K) 1993..3118 °C: log (P/Pa) = 12.185 - 34110 / (T/K)
2799 3050 3349                  
78 Pt platinum
use (T/K) 2330 (2550) 2815   3143     3556     4094  
CRC.b (T/°C) 2057 2277 (e) 2542   2870     3283     3821  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 9.888 - 29387 / (T/K) + 1.1039 log (T/K) - 0.4527 (T/K)-3
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2500 K: log (P/Pa) = 11.392 - 26856 / (T/K)
2357.4                      
KAL (T/K)       2910 3150 3260 3420 3560 3700 3910   4090
SMI.c (T/K) 1606..2582 °C: log (P/Pa) = 11.758 - 27500 / (T/K)
2339 2556 2818                  
79 Au gold
use (T/K) 1646 1814 2021   2281     2620     3078  
CRC.b (T/°C) 1373 1541 1748   2008     2347     2805  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 14.158 - 19343 / (T/K) - 0.7479 log (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2050 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.838 - 18024 / (T/K)
1663.0 1832.1 2039.4                  
KAL (T/K)       2100 2290 2390 2520 2640 2770 2960   3120
SMI.a (T/K) 1083..1867 °C: log (P/Pa) = 10.775 - 18520 / (T/K)
1719 1895 2111                  
80 Hg mercury
use (T/K) 315 350 393   449     523     629  
CRC.j,k (T/°C) 42.0 76.6 120.0   175.6     250.3     355.9  
CR2 (T/K) liquid, 298 K to 400 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.122 - 3190 / (T/K)
315.2 349.7 392.8                  
KAL (T/K)       408 448.8 468.8 498.4 523.4 551.2 592.9   629.8
81 Tl thallium
use (T/K) 882 977 1097   1252     1461     1758  
CRC.b (T/°C) 609 704 824   979     1188     1485  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 10.977 - 9447 / (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 1100 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.265 - 9037 / (T/K)
880.4 975.4 1093.4                  
KAL (T/K)       1125 1235 1290 1370 1440 1515 1630   1730
SMI.a (T/K) liquid, 405..821 °C: log (P/Pa) = 10.275 - 8920 / (T/K)
868 962 1078                  
82 Pb lead
use (T/K) 978 1088 1229   1412     1660     2027  
CRC.b (T/°C) 705 815 956   1139     1387     1754  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 10.649 - 10143 / (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 1200 K: log (P/Pa) = 9.917 - 9701 / (T/K)
978.2 1087.9                    
KAL (T/K)       1285 1420 1485 1585 1670 1760 1905   2030
SMI.a (T/K) liquid, 483..975 °C: log (P/Pa) = 9.815 - 9600 / (T/K)
978 1089 1228                  
83 Bi bismuth
use (T/K) 941 1041 1165   1325     1538     1835  
CRC.b (T/°C) 668 768 892   1052     1265     1562  
KAL (T/K)       1225 1350 1410 1505 1580 1670 1800   1920
SMI.c (T/K) liquid, 474..934 °C: log (P/Pa) = 10.265 - 9824 / (T/K)
957 1060 1189                  
84 Po polonium
use (T/K)         (846)     1003     1236  
CRC.d (T/°C)         573 (e)     730.2     963.3  
85 At astatine
use (T/K) 361 392 429   475     531     607  
CRC.b (T/°C) 88 (s) 119 (s) 156 (s)   202 (s)     258 (s)     334  
86 Rn radon
use (T/K) 110 121 134   152     176     211  
CRC.d (T/°C) -163 (s) -152 (s) -139 (s)   -121.4 (s)     -97.6 (s)     -62.3  
KAL (T/K)       139 (s) 152 (s) 158 (s) 168 (s) 176 (s) 184 (s) 198 (s)   211
87 Fr francium
use (T/K) (404) (454) (519)   (608)     (738)     (946)  
CRC.b (T/°C) 131 (e) 181 (e) 246 (e)   335 (e)     465 (e)     673 (e)  
88 Ra radium
use (T/K) 819 906 1037   1209     1446     1799  
CRC.b (T/°C) 546 (s) 633 (s) 764   936     1173     1526  
90 Th thorium
use (T/K) 2633 2907 3248   3683     4259     5055  
CRC.b (T/°C) 2360 2634 2975   3410     3986     4782  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 13.674 - 31483 / (T/K) - 0.5288 log (T/K)
CR2 liquid, m.p. to 2500 K: log (P/Pa) = -13.447 - 24569 / (T/K) + 6.6473 log (T/K)
SMI.c (T/K) 1686..2715 °C: log (P/Pa) = 11.645 - 28440 / (T/K)
2442 2672 2949                  
91 Pa protactinium
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 15.558 - 34869 / (T/K) - 1.0075 log (T/K)
CR2 liquid, m.p. to 2500 K: log (P/Pa) = 11.183 - 32874 / (T/K)
92 U uranium
use (T/K) 2325 2564 2859   3234     3727     4402  
CRC.b (T/°C) 2052 2291 2586   2961     3454     4129  
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 5.776 - 27729 / (T/K) + 2.6982 log (T/K) - 1.5471 (T/K)-3
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2500 K: log (P/Pa) = 25.741 - 28776 / (T/K) - 4.0962 log (T/K)
2422.6                      
SMI.c (T/K) liquid, 1461..2338 °C: log (P/Pa) = 12.005 - 25800 / (T/K)
2149 2344 2579                  
93 Np neptunium
use (T/K) 2194 2437                    
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 24.649 - 24886 / (T/K) - 3.9991 log (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2500 K: log (P/Pa) = 15.082 - 23378 / (T/K) - 1.3250 log (T/K)
2194.1 2436.6                    
94 Pu plutonium
use (T/K) 1756 1953 2198   2511     2926     3499  
CRC.b (T/°C) 1483 1680 1925   2238     2653     3226  
CR2 solid, 500 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 23.864 - 18460 / (T/K) - 4.4720 log (T/K)
CR2 solid, 298 K to 600 K: log (P/Pa) = 31.166 - 19162 / (T/K) - 6.6675 log (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2450 K: log (P/Pa) = 8.672 - 16658 / (T/K)
1920.9 2171.3                    
95 Am americium
use (T/K) 1239 1356                    
CR2 (T/K) solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 16.317 - 15059 / (T/K) - 1.3449 log (T/K)
1238.7 1356.1                    
96 Cm curium
use (T/K) 1788 1982                    
CR2 solid, 298 K to m.p.: log (P/Pa) = 13.375 - 20364 / (T/K) - 0.5770 log (T/K)
CR2 (T/K) liquid, m.p. to 2200 K: log (P/Pa) = 10.229 - 18292 / (T/K)
1788.2 1982.0                    
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Notes:

  • Values are given in terms of temperature necessary to reach the specified pressure.
  • Valid results within the quoted ranges from most equations are included in the table for comparison.
  • A conversion factor is included into the original first coefficients of the equations to provide the pressure in pascals (CR2: 5.006, SMI: -0.875).
  • Ref. SMI uses temperature scale ITS-48. No conversion was done, which should be of little consequence however.
  • The temperature at standard pressure should be equal to the normal boiling point, but due to the considerable spread does not necessarily have to match values reported elsewhere.
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References:

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a) CRC.a-m

David R. Lide (ed), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, 2003; Section 6, Fluid Properties; Vapor Pressure

Uncertainties of several degrees should generally be assumed. (e) Indicates extrapolated values beyond the region of experimental data, subject to greater uncertainty. (i) Indicates values calculated from ideal gas thermodynamic functions. (s) Indicates the substance is solid at this temperature. As quoted from these sources:
  • a - Lide, D.R., and Kehiaian, H.V., CRC Handbook of Thermophysical and Thermochemical Data, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1994.
  • b - Stull, D., in American Institute of Physics Handbook, Third Edition, Gray, D.E., Ed., McGraw Hill, New York, 1972.
  • c - Hultgren, R., Desai, P.D., Hawkins, D.T., Gleiser, M., Kelley, K.K., and Wagman, D.D., Selected Values of Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements, American Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH, 1973.
  • d - TRCVP, Vapor Pressure Database, Version 2.2P, Thermodynamic Research Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
  • e - Barin, I., Thermochemical Data of Pure Substances, VCH Publishers, New York, 1993.
  • f - Ohse, R.W. Handbook of Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Alkali Metals, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1994.
  • g - Gschneidner, K.A., in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 77th Edition, p. 4-112, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1996.
  • h - Leider, H.R., Krikorian, O.H., and Young, D.A., Carbon, 11, 555, 1973.
  • i - Wagner, W., and de Reuck, K.M., International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State, No. 9. Oxygen, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1987.
  • j - Marsh, K.N., Editor, Recommended Reference Materials for the Realization of Physicochemical Properties, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1987.
  • k - Alcock, C.B., Itkin, V.P., and Horrigan, M.K., Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 23, 309, 1984.
  • l - Stewart, R.B., and Jacobsen, R.T., J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 18, 639, 1989.
  • m - Sifner, O., and Klomfar, J., J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 23, 63, 1994.
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b) CR2

David R. Lide (ed), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th Edition, online version. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, 2003; Section 4, Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds; Vapor Pressure of the Metallic Elements

The equations reproduce the observed pressures to an accuracy of ±5% or better. Coefficients from this source:
  • Alcock, C.B., Itkin, V.P., and Horrigan, M.K., Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 23, 309, (1984).
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c) KAL

National Physical Laboratory, Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants; Section 3.4.4, D. Ambrose, Vapour pressures from 0.2 to 101.325 kPa. Retrieved Jan 2006.

[edit]

d) SMI.a-s

W.E. Forsythe (ed.), Smithsonian Physical Tables 9th ed., online version (1954; Knovel 2003). Table 363, Evaporation of Metals

The equations are described as reproducing the observed pressures to a satisfactory degree of approximation. From these sources:
  • a - K.K. Kelley, Bur. Mines Bull. 383, (1935).
  • b - R.W. Ditchburn, J.C. Gilmour, Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 13, p. 310, (1941).
  • c - Brewer, The thermodynamic and physical properties of the elements, Report for the Manhattan Project, (1946).
  • d - T.J. Killian, Phys. Rev., vol. 27, p. 578, (1926).
  • e - J.B. Taylor, I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev., vol. 51, p. 753, (1937).
  • f - A.L. Marshall, R.W. Dornte, F.J. Norton, Amer. Chem. Soc., vol. 59, p. 1161, (1937).
  • g - R. Schumann, A.B. Garret, Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc., vol. 66, p. 442, (1944); vol. 67, p. 2279, (1945).
  • h - E. Rudberg, Phys. Rev., vol. 46, p. 763, (1934).
  • i - J.A.M. Van Liempt, Rec. Trav. Chem. d. Pays-Bas, vol. 55, p. 468, (1936).
  • j - E. Rudberg, J. Lempert, Journ. Chem. Phys., vol. 3, p. 627, (1935).
  • k - Int. National Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 306, (1928).
  • l - E. Baur, R. Bruner, Hev. Chim. Acta, vol. 17, p. 958, (1934).
  • m - J.S. Anderson, Journ. Chem. Soc. (London), vol. 141, (1943).
  • n - A.L. Reimann, C.K. Grant, Philos. Mag., vol. 22, p. 34, (1936).
  • o - D.B. Langmuir, L. Malter, Phys. Rev., vol. 55, p. 748, (1939).
  • p - M.D. Fiske, Phys. Rev., vol. 61, p. 513, (1942).
  • q - H.L. Johnston, A.L. Marshall, Journ. Amer. Chem. Soc., vol. 62, p. 1382, (1940).
  • r - H.A. Jones, I. Langmuir, G.M.J. Mackay, Phys. Rev., vol. 30, p. 201, (1927).
  • s - H.A. Jones, I. Langmuir, Gen. Electric Rev., vol. 30, p. 354, (1927).